Bob Richardson

  • LIFO Related Congressional Updates
    • No current general threats to LIFO on Capitol Hill
    • H.R. 7832/S. 4105 – Supply Chain Disruptions Relief Act
      • This bill was drafted to provide tax relief to new motor vehicle dealerships using the LIFO method who had qualified inventory liquidations solely attributable to supply chain disruptions that occurred between 2020 – 2021, which in turn caused LIFO recapture & increased tax liabilities to be recognized during this period.
      • This bill works in conjunction with IRS Reg. §473, which is a preexisting regulation that was originally codified in 1980 to provide relief to taxpayers suffering qualified inventory interruptions as a result of the 1979 oil embargo.
      • Has passed in the Senate & now awaits final approval to occur in House & enactment by President Biden
      • Relief will likely be provided by filing accounting method change in the form of a Sec. 481a adjustment equal to the qualified liquidations that occurred between 2020 – 2021 & will be obtained by reporting this adjustment on the 2022 year end tax return
      • Learn about the implications of this bill for dealerships here: About the Supply Chain Disruptions Act

    • S.4768 – Taxing Big Oil Profiteers Act
      • Would eliminate LIFO for companies with gross receipts of > $1B whose primary trade/business is oil & natural gas production, refining, processing, transportation or distribution
      • According to LIFO lobbying group (LIFO Coalition), this bill poses a low threat because it’s unlikely to pass during lame duck session
  • IRS LIFO Records Practice Unit
    • Released in 2021 & LIFOPro has seen an increase in IRS LIFO audits within our client-base following its release
    • Emphasizes importance of maintaining detailed inventory records for all periods on LIFO to support inflation calculation
    • New focus on LIFO records compliance increases importance of maintaining adequate LIFO books & records
    • View the IRS Practice Unit Here: IRS LIFO Records Practice Unit
  • Tax Benefits
    • LIFO often creates material long-term tax deferral/savings: Not just a one-time tax benefit or timing difference between book & tax such as straight-line vs. accelerated depreciation
    • During periods of rising costs, LIFO:
      • Provides more after-tax free cash flow than non-LIFO methods when there’s inflation
      • Ensures taxes aren’t paid on goods that have been purchased, but have yet to be sold
      • Improves ability to replenish & maintain an adequate level of inventory
    • Some consider LIFO to act as a tax deferral tool that can be thought of as an interest-free loan, while others believe LIFO essentially acts as a permanent form of tax savings if a company is profitable, satisfies the going concern assumption & intends to stay on LIFO
    • Tax Court opinion regarding LIFO (see Amity Leather vs. Commissioner):
The theory behind LIFO is that income may be more accurately determined by matching current costs against current revenues, thereby eliminating from earnings any artificial profits resulting from inflationary increases in inventory costs. At the heart of the LIFO method is the principle that income is more clearly reflected by matching current costs with current revenues.
  • GAAP accounting method
    • LIFO is an accounting method permissible under GAAP, not just a tax incentive
    • During periods of rising costs, income is most clearly reflected by matching current costs with current revenues
    • Provides a more conservative measure of income compared to non-LIFO methods during periods of rising costs

LIFO LIFO Cost/Benefit Case Study: Building Products Manufacturer

  • Company Overview
    • Years on LIFO: 6 (2017 = 1st year on LIFO)
    • 2022 y/e inventory balance @ Cost: $15M
    • 2022 y/e inventory balance @ LIFO: $12.1M
    • Combined federal + state tax rate: 30%
    • Interest rate on debt: 6%
    • 2022 y/e LIFO reserve: $2.9M
  • Benefits
    • Cumulative after-tax savings:
    • 2022 y/e LIFO reserve * tax rate = $2.9M * 30% = $860K
    • Savings on interest expense: Cumulative after-tax savings * interest rate on debt = $860K * 6% = $52K
  • Costs
    • First year fee including IRS forms prep (2017): $5K
    • Recurring annual outsourcing fee: $2,500 (years 2 – 6)
    • Cumulative outsourcing costs: $17,500
    • Cost as a percentage of after-tax savings: $17,500 ÷ $860K = 2%
  • Misconception #1: The following burdens & costs outweigh the benefits of LIFO:
    • Management, cost accounting & purchasing/sales functions & responsibilities will be complicated by using LIFO
    • Wholesale changes must be made to accounting system since item costs & the physical flow of goods must be tracked on a LIFO basis
    • Clarifications
      • Under the dollar-value method, the LIFO value of inventory is determined outside of the accounting system & a top-side accounting entry is recorded to adjust ending inventory from cost to LIFO & accrue the change in the LIFO reserve
      • Under dollar-value LIFO, item costs remain being tracked the same way they did prior to electing LIFO & requires no changes to the accounting system other than adding a contra-inventory subledger account called the LIFO reserve
  • Misconception #2
    • Employee compensation & bonuses will be complicated from using LIFO
    • Clarification: Internal management reports can be presented on a non-LIFO basis as long as they’re only being used internally
  • Misconception #3: Tax savings from LIFO will be minimal because of:
    • High inventory turnover or new item rates
    • Just in time inventory or lean accounting practices
    • Clarifications
      • Under the dollar-value method, the inflation rate used to calculate the LIFO reserve change is based on a 12 month comparison of current vs. prior year’s item/unit costs extended by quantities on hand in ending inventory regardless of the turnover ratio
      • External indexes reconstruct inflation on new items, which ensures the same amount of inflation is applied to new & preexisting items
      • Manufacturers will always have raw materials & WIP; wholesalers/distributors & retailers still must maintain adequate base stock
  • Misconception #4: Internal costs must be used to measure LIFO inflation
    • Clarification: External indexes such as the BLS CPI/PPI can be used to measure inflation, thereby minimizing reliance on accounting information systems
  • Misconception #5: LIFO reserve change misconceptions:
    • Material LIFO reserve recaptures can occur from normal current vs. prior year inventory balance decreases
    • LIFO reserve can’t increase if the current vs. prior period’s inventory balance decreases
    • Clarifications
      • In most cases, material LIFO recapture only occurs when there is either substantial deflation and/or substantial inventory liquidations
      • When there’s inflation, LIFO reserve can increase even when current vs. prior year inventory balances decrease

2022 Inflation Environment & Historical Comparisons – BLS PPI

2022 Inflation Environment & Historical Comparisons – BLS CPI

  • Past: 1970s – 1980s (all rates are based off 1 year or 12 months ended December annual averages)
    • ‘72 – ‘75 (4 years)
      • Well above-average in 1972 & 1975; peak CPI inflation of 15% occurred in ’73 & peak PPI inflation of 21% occurred in ’74 (2nd & 3rd years)
      • Huge wave of LIFO elections occurred during this period, especially between 1974 – 1975 (4th & 5th years)
    • ‘78 – ’81 (4 years)
      • Well above-average in 1978, 1980 – 1981; peak CPI/PPI inflation of 13%/15% occurred in ’79 (2nd year)
      • Another influx of LIFO elections occurred during this period, primarily in 1980 & 1981 (3rd & 4th years)
  • Present: 2021 – 2022
    • 2021: 20% PPI inflation likely represented peak PPI for the current high inflation period & 7% CPI inflation is well above-average
    • 2022: 8% PPI inflation is highly elevated (11M ended Nov. ‘22) & 8% CPI inflation likely represents peak CPI for current high inflation period (10 months ended Oct. 2022)
  • Key takeaways
    • The current high-inflation period will make it one of the best times to elect LIFO in the past 4-5 decades
    • 2022 will likely be the last period in the foreseeable future to elect LIFO during a record high-inflation period & obtain material election year LIFO tax benefits since peak PPI occurred in 2021 & peak CPI will likely occur in 2022
    • Electing LIFO during a historically high inflation period such as 2022 affords the following benefits:
      • Obtain first year tax deferral/savings that would normally take many years to accrue during a period of average inflation
      • Increase the probability of maintaining a perpetually favorable tax position from LIFO & minimize the likelihood of a complete LIFO reserve recapture from ever occurring
  • Good LIFO Candidate: LIFOPro has developed a proprietary scoring system to identify good candidates, which requires for the following criteria to be met:
    • High inflation frequency: Must have inflation in more than half of the last 20 years (11 or more). Best LIFO candidates have high inflation frequency because the more often inflation is expected to occur, the higher the likelihood that LIFO acts as annuity & the lower the likelihood of deflation/LIFO recapture
    • Historical Average Annual Inflation Rate of 1% or greater: Using 20 year average annual inflation rate (or 3/5/10 year)
    • At least $2M of inventory
  • Good LIFO Election Candidate: Must meet the good LIFO candidate criteria listed above & have an election year inflation rate that’s greater than or equal to the historical average annual inflation rate
  • Good 2022 LIFO Election Candidates List: Download here: 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List
  • Election Year LIFO Tax Savings Formula & Example
    • Formulas
      • Election year taxable income reduction from LIFO (LIFO expense): Prior year inventory balance at cost * Current year inflation rate
      • Election year LIFO tax benefit: Current year LIFO expense * Combined federal & state tax rate
    • Example:
      • Assumptions: $5M prior year end inventory balance, 10% current year inflation & 40% tax rate
      • Results:
        • Election year LIFO expense: $5M * 10% = $500K
        • Election year LIFO tax benefit: $500K * 40% = $200K
Exploring electing LIFO in 2022 is essential in certain industries because it’d be irresponsible to fail to do so. The inflation experienced in many industries this year will may never occur again in our lifetimes. In many cases, the benefits from electing LIFO in 2022 will create tax benefits that would normally take many years to accrue. LIFOPro has selected the top 10 BLS major groups or “LIFO locks” that are guaranteed to provide meaningful and recurring LIFO tax benefits. Subgroupings or product types and their 12M ended December 2022 inflation rates are listed below for each of the Top 10 LIFO locks.

Top 10 2022 LIFO Locks List

  • All processed foods & feeds except meat, poultry & seafood – 10% inflation
  • Selected Chemicals & allied products, including:
    • Basic inorganic chemicals – 30% inflation
    • Paints & allied products – 20% inflation
    • Agricultural chemicals and chemical products – 19% inflation
    • Thermosetting resins – 13% inflation
    • Soaps & detergents – 12% inflation
    • Cosmetics & other toilet preparations – 6% inflation
  • All Rubber & plastic products, including:
    • Tires – 15% inflation
    • Construction products – 9% inflation
    • Film, sheet, rods & tubes: 5% – 13% inflation
    • Packaging products – 8% inflation
    • Consumer, institutional & commercial fabricated plastic products – 14% inflation
  • Selected lumber & wood products, including:
    • Millwork – 8% inflation
    • Logs, bolts, timber, pulpwood & wood chips – 5% inflation
    • Treated wood – 9% inflation
  • Selected Pulp, paper & allied products, including:
    • Paper & paperboard – 9% inflation
    • Converted paper and paperboard products (including sanitary paper products) – 14% inflation
    • Pressure-sensitive products, including tape – 15% inflation
    • Publications, printed matter and printing material (including books, magazines & stationary) – 14% inflation
  • Selected Metal commodities & products, including:
    • Foundry & forge shop products – 13% inflation
    • Steel wire – 12% inflation
    • Metal containers – 18% inflation
    • Plumbing fixtures, fittings & trim – 9% inflation
    • Heating equipment – 11% inflation
    • Fabricated structural metal products, including:
      • Metal doors, sash & trim – 10% inflation
      • Metal tanks – 11% inflation
      • Sheet metal products – 7% inflation
    • Miscellaneous metal products, including:
      • Fasteners, including screws, bolts, pins, nuts, washers & non-threaded metal fasteners – 15% inflation
      • Lighting fixtures – 7% inflation
      • Ferrous wire products, including wire springs – 14% inflation
      • Metal foil & leaf – 19% inflation
  • All Machinery & equipment, including:
    • Agricultural, farm & construction machinery/equipment – 13% inflation
    • Heat transfer, ventilation & air-conditioning (HVAC) – 13% inflation
    • Pumps, compressors & related equipment – 16% inflation
    • Material handling equipment – 10% inflation
    • Fluid power equipment (hydraulics) – 11% inflation
    • Miscellaneous other machinery & equipment, including valves, pipe fittings & unions – 11% inflation
  • All Furniture & electronics, including:
    • Household & commercial furniture: 8% – 13% inflation
    • Household appliances – 8% inflation
    • Other household durable goods – 7% inflation
  • All Transportation equipment, including:
    • Auto, marine/power sports & RV dealers: 5% – 15% inflation
    • Auto parts: 4% – 10% inflation
  • All Miscellaneous products, including:
    • Toys, Sporting and athletic goods, Small arms & ammo – 12% inflation
    • Tobacco products – 11% inflation
    • Photographic equipment & supplies – 7% inflation
    • Safety equipment & clothing – 11% inflation
  • Locks are in order of BLS major commodity grouping which begins at 01 & ends at 15, not in order of highest to lowest inflation.
  • The term “All” at the beginning of the major group name infers that many other subgroupings or product types in addition to the ones listed for the major subgroup are also LIFO locks for 2022, but are not listed. View LIFOPro’s comprehensive 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List Here: 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List
Download 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List Here: 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List
BLS CodeBLS Commodity Category DescriptionGood LIFO CandidateGood ’22 Election Candidate12M Ended Dec. ’2212M Ended Dec. ’2112M Ended Dec. ’203Y Annual Avg.5Y Annual Avg.10Y Annual Avg.20Y Annual Avg.Inflation Frequency ’03 – ’22Inflation Frequency Rate2022 vs. 20Y Annual Average Inflation Multiplier
01Farm productsYesYes23.2%23.9%3.1%16.3%10.1%2.6%4.9%14 of 2070%4.7
011Fruits & melons, fresh/dry vegs. & nutsYesYes43.0%9.4%-4.5%14.3%10.2%7.5%6.2%14 of 2070%7.0
0111Fresh fruits and melonsYesYes13.0%16.8%-11.7%5.2%3.5%3.2%4.4%13 of 2065%2.9
0113Fresh and dry vegetablesYesYes92.8%0.7%10.2%28.9%19.4%13.8%8.1%11 of 2055%11.5
0119Tree nutsYesNo-4.3%15.1%-18.8%-3.7%1.2%0.2%4.6%11 of 2055%-0.9
012GrainsYesYes8.9%43.9%14.4%21.5%15.5%-0.3%5.3%13 of 2065%1.7
0121WheatNoNo-5.7%58.6%17.3%20.6%14.2%0.7%4.3%9 of 2045%-1.3
0122Other grainsYesYes12.8%41.3%14.2%22.1%16.3%-0.6%5.5%13 of 2065%2.3
0123Rough riceYesYes23.9%12.5%4.5%13.3%8.3%1.8%4.7%13 of 2065%5.1
013Slaughter livestockYesYes11.1%23.0%-4.5%9.3%4.9%1.6%3.9%13 of 2065%2.9
0131Slaughter cattleYesYes14.2%24.8%-8.6%9.2%5.2%2.0%3.9%12 of 2060%3.6
0132Slaughter hogsYesYes11.1%15.1%10.5%12.2%5.5%0.5%3.8%11 of 2055%3.0
0133Slaughter lambsYesNo-42.6%35.5%23.4%-1.4%0.2%4.9%3.3%14 of 2070%-13.0
014Slaughter poultryYesYes6.3%52.4%-1.1%17.0%9.8%3.6%5.7%12 of 2060%1.1
0141Slaughter chickensYesNo0.4%63.2%-4.6%16.1%8.8%2.9%5.6%13 of 2065%0.1
0142Slaughter turkeysYesYes37.3%17.6%14.2%22.6%15.2%6.7%6.2%15 of 2075%6.0
0143Slaughter ducksYesYes10.9%4.7%1.2%5.5%3.4%2.3%4.0%18 of 2090%2.7
015Raw cottonYesNo-20.3%48.6%15.6%11.0%3.3%1.7%2.8%12 of 2060%-7.2
0151Raw cottonYesNo-20.3%48.6%15.5%11.0%3.3%1.7%2.8%12 of 2060%-7.1
016Raw milkYesYes25.2%-3.5%2.8%7.5%7.2%1.5%3.7%13 of 2065%6.8
0161Raw milkYesYes25.2%-3.5%2.8%7.5%7.2%1.5%3.7%13 of 2065%6.8
017Chicken eggsYesYes248.1%95.5%-33.7%65.2%25.0%14.8%10.2%12 of 2060%24.4
0171Chicken eggsYesYes248.1%95.5%-33.7%65.2%25.0%14.8%10.2%12 of 2060%24.4
018Hay, hayseeds, and oilseedsYesYes19.2%11.5%25.1%18.5%10.1%0.6%4.9%13 of 2065%3.9
0181Hay and hayseedsYesYes28.2%32.8%-2.1%18.6%13.4%3.2%5.6%12 of 2060%5.1
0183OilseedsYesYes17.4%8.0%31.1%18.5%9.4%0.1%4.9%12 of 2060%3.5
02Processed foods and feedsYesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
021Cereal and bakery productsYesYes15.3%9.2%0.1%8.0%5.5%2.6%3.4%16 of 2080%4.5
0211Bakery productsYesYes14.2%4.8%-1.1%5.8%4.3%2.8%3.0%19 of 2095%4.7
0212Flour and flour base mixes and doughsYesYes16.2%19.9%1.3%12.2%7.3%2.5%4.0%14 of 2070%4.1
0213Milled rice and byproductsYesYes23.1%6.9%6.8%12.0%8.5%3.6%6.4%15 of 2075%3.6
0214Cereal and pasta productsYesYes15.6%9.7%0.4%8.4%5.7%2.0%3.2%15 of 2075%4.8
022Meats, poultry, and fishYesNo-3.3%20.0%2.7%6.0%4.4%2.1%3.2%14 of 2070%-1.0
0221MeatsYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%5.6%4.6%2.0%3.3%15 of 2075%-0.2
0222Processed poultryYesNo-5.6%26.5%2.2%6.9%3.7%1.4%2.6%14 of 2070%-2.1
0223Unprocessed and prepared seafoodYesNo-12.0%36.3%-0.5%6.1%5.1%4.4%4.3%13 of 2065%-2.8
023Dairy productsYesYes13.2%7.6%-3.0%5.7%4.6%1.8%3.0%12 of 2060%4.4
0231Fluid milk productsYesYes15.4%6.6%-0.9%6.8%5.3%2.4%3.6%12 of 2060%4.3
0232ButterYesYes39.2%40.7%-26.0%13.2%4.8%5.9%4.6%11 of 2055%8.5
0233Natural, processed, and imitation cheeseYesYes13.6%2.0%-5.1%3.2%3.8%1.2%2.7%11 of 2055%5.1
0234Ice cream and frozen dessertsYesYes13.4%5.1%-1.9%5.4%3.9%2.6%2.7%18 of 2090%4.9
0235Dry, condensed, and evaporated milk productsYesYes1.5%18.5%4.1%7.8%5.1%0.0%2.1%14 of 2070%0.7
024Processed fruits and vegetablesYesYes18.2%4.5%3.8%8.6%5.4%3.2%3.5%17 of 2085%5.2
0241Canned fruits and juicesYesYes14.9%4.3%4.4%7.8%3.6%2.9%3.4%16 of 2080%4.5
0242Frozen fruits, juices and adesYesNo-0.1%21.4%8.0%9.4%3.0%1.9%3.4%12 of 2060%0.0
0244Canned vegetables and juicesYesYes24.0%5.7%2.3%10.2%7.7%3.4%3.2%16 of 2080%7.5
0245Frozen vegetablesYesYes24.5%1.9%2.7%9.2%6.3%3.8%3.8%18 of 2090%6.4
0248Dried and dehydrated foodYesYes12.0%0.1%5.5%5.8%3.8%3.0%3.5%17 of 2085%3.4
025Sugar and confectioneryYesYes8.8%3.1%-1.4%3.4%3.0%1.6%2.8%16 of 2080%3.2
0252Raw cane sugar and sugar cane mill products and byproductsYesYes14.3%7.9%9.2%10.4%6.5%2.9%3.2%12 of 2060%4.5
0253Refined sugar products and byproductsYesYes8.8%5.8%4.7%6.4%4.8%1.1%3.0%14 of 2070%3.0
0254Confectionery materialsYesYes17.0%5.4%-4.4%5.6%4.8%2.3%2.8%15 of 2075%6.1
0255Confectionery end productsYesYes5.9%1.4%-2.6%1.5%1.7%1.4%2.7%16 of 2080%2.2
026Beverages and beverage materialsYesYes10.2%3.3%2.1%5.1%3.7%2.3%2.5%20 of 20100%4.1
0261Alcoholic beveragesYesYes6.3%-0.4%1.9%2.6%1.9%1.3%1.9%18 of 2090%3.3
0262Soft drinksYesYes12.3%7.3%2.4%7.3%5.5%3.3%2.8%20 of 20100%4.3
0263Packaged beverage materialsYesYes18.8%2.6%0.3%6.9%4.0%1.4%3.3%14 of 2070%5.7
0264Other beverage materialsYesYes14.1%10.7%4.7%9.8%7.0%4.0%3.6%18 of 2090%4.0
027Fats and oilsYesYes12.5%42.5%10.8%21.1%10.6%3.7%5.4%11 of 2055%2.3
0278Shortening, cooking oil, and margarineNoNo13.8%35.3%7.7%18.4%9.0%3.3%4.8%10 of 2050%2.9
027AOther oilseed processingYesYes7.9%60.0%15.2%25.7%14.0%5.2%5.4%11 of 2055%1.5
027BCorn oil, crude and refinedYesYes6.9%82.2%57.3%45.3%21.1%3.7%5.4%11 of 2055%1.3
028Miscellaneous processed foodsYesYes20.2%5.9%1.2%8.8%5.5%3.1%3.0%16 of 2080%6.7
0281Canned jams, jellies, and preservesYesYes8.4%9.7%0.4%6.1%3.9%2.6%2.8%17 of 2085%3.0
0282Pickles and other pickled products, including horseradishYesYes13.9%12.5%0.8%8.9%6.0%3.4%2.8%16 of 2080%5.0
0284Specialty canningYesYes23.2%7.2%-0.3%9.6%6.6%3.6%3.1%17 of 2085%7.5
0285Frozen specialty foodYesYes16.7%3.4%0.6%6.7%3.8%2.0%2.1%14 of 2070%7.8
0286Prepared sauces, except tomatoYesYes12.8%2.9%0.3%5.2%3.7%2.0%2.2%17 of 2085%5.8
0289Other miscellaneous processed foodsYesYes13.7%6.1%2.2%7.2%5.1%3.0%3.0%17 of 2085%4.5
029Prepared animal feedsYesYes15.4%8.0%9.6%11.0%7.0%1.0%4.5%15 of 2075%3.4
0292Soybean cake, meal, and other byproductsYesYes10.4%-1.6%9.1%5.8%2.7%-2.9%3.3%13 of 2065%3.1
0293Formula feedsYesYes11.9%16.3%8.6%12.2%8.1%1.0%4.8%15 of 2075%2.5
0294Miscellaneous feedstuffsYesYes20.0%6.3%10.4%12.1%7.9%2.7%4.7%14 of 2070%4.3
03Textile products and apparelYesYes7.9%15.4%-0.2%7.5%5.1%2.8%2.2%14 of 2070%3.5
031Synthetic fibersNoNo5.2%22.0%-3.0%7.6%5.8%3.0%2.2%10 of 2050%2.4
0315Unprocessed filament yarnsYesYes5.2%22.0%-3.0%7.6%5.8%3.0%2.2%11 of 2055%2.4
032Processed yarns and threadsYesYes8.2%29.3%-2.0%11.1%7.0%3.0%3.1%13 of 2065%2.6
0326YarnsYesYes8.4%30.2%-2.1%11.4%7.1%3.3%3.2%14 of 2070%2.7
033Greige fabricsYesYes9.3%13.3%-1.1%7.0%4.4%2.0%2.1%12 of 2060%4.3
0337Greige broadwoven fabricsYesYes8.4%10.0%-0.8%5.7%4.0%2.2%2.2%13 of 2065%3.8
0338Greige knit fabricsYesYes9.9%7.2%2.1%6.4%4.1%1.7%2.4%13 of 2065%4.2
0339Tire cord and tire fabricYesYes10.8%13.3%-1.1%7.0%4.4%1.5%2.1%12 of 2060%5.1
034Finished fabricsYesYes8.5%14.5%1.8%8.1%5.9%3.2%2.7%15 of 2075%3.2
0342Finished broadwoven fabricsYesNo1.3%26.4%11.2%12.5%7.7%3.9%3.3%14 of 2070%0.4
0344Woven and braided narrow fabricsYesYes13.7%13.5%0.6%9.1%5.9%5.1%3.5%19 of 2095%3.9
0345Nonwoven fabrics and feltsYesYes8.6%14.5%-2.3%6.7%5.7%2.7%2.5%12 of 2060%3.5
0346Coated fabrics, not rubberizedYesYes13.4%6.7%1.1%6.9%5.0%2.9%3.0%17 of 2085%4.4
0347Screen printed textile materials, embroideries, and lace goodsYesYes9.4%10.0%1.8%7.0%5.3%2.8%1.7%17 of 2085%5.4
0348Knit fabrics, finished in knitting millsYesYes17.7%13.6%1.5%10.7%6.9%4.0%2.7%15 of 2075%6.7
038Apparel & other fabricated textile prodsYesYes5.2%7.0%-0.1%4.0%2.9%2.1%1.7%17 of 2085%3.1
0381ApparelYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
0382Textile house furnishingsYesYes3.5%3.9%0.2%2.5%1.5%2.4%2.0%18 of 2090%1.7
0383Industrial and other fabricated productsYesYes6.4%11.8%1.7%6.5%4.9%2.9%2.4%17 of 2085%2.7
039Miscellaneous textile products/servicesYesYes28.9%25.7%2.2%18.3%8.4%3.5%3.2%13 of 2065%9.1
0394Miscellaneous textile products/servicesYesYes28.9%25.7%2.1%18.3%8.4%3.5%3.2%13 of 2065%9.1
04Hides, skins, leather, and related productsNoNo3.2%0.9%3.0%2.4%-1.3%-1.7%0.5%12 of 2060%6.9
041Hides and skins, incl. cattleNoNo-5.2%-15.6%12.4%-3.5%-10.4%-9.2%-2.5%9 of 2045%2.0
0419Hides and skins, incl. cattleNoNo-5.2%-15.5%12.4%-3.4%-10.4%-9.2%-2.5%8 of 2040%2.0
042LeatherNoNo-1.9%13.2%-0.6%3.3%-1.8%-3.0%-0.2%10 of 2050%7.6
0427Finished and unfinished leatherNoNo-1.9%13.2%-0.6%3.3%-1.8%-3.0%-0.2%10 of 2050%7.7
043FootwearYesYes11.1%6.0%-0.2%5.6%4.0%3.3%2.7%18 of 2090%4.2
0431Men’s nonathletic footwearYesYes13.8%6.7%0.3%6.8%4.6%3.6%3.0%20 of 20100%4.6
0432Women’s nonathletic footwearYesYes4.1%3.6%0.0%2.5%2.5%2.6%1.8%15 of 2075%2.2
044Other leather and related productsYesYes4.2%3.0%1.1%2.8%2.3%2.3%1.8%20 of 20100%2.3
0441Luggage and small leather goodsYesYes2.5%0.8%1.2%1.5%1.7%1.7%1.6%17 of 2085%1.6
0445Leather and leather-like goods, n.e.c.YesYes6.3%5.9%1.1%4.4%3.1%3.3%2.2%20 of 20100%2.9
05Fuels and related products and powerYesYes12.1%38.3%-6.3%13.2%7.2%1.7%4.5%13 of 2065%2.6
051CoalYesYes49.9%0.4%-5.7%12.4%7.8%2.8%5.5%15 of 2075%9.1
0511AnthraciteYesYes34.0%9.7%0.2%13.8%9.5%3.4%5.1%15 of 2075%6.7
0512Bituminous coal and ligniteYesYes50.0%0.4%-5.7%12.4%7.8%2.8%5.5%15 of 2075%9.1
053Gas fuelsYesYes21.6%108.2%9.1%40.3%13.5%3.4%2.3%11 of 2055%9.5
0531Natural gasYesYes27.5%110.0%10.1%43.4%14.8%4.8%1.6%11 of 2055%17.6
0532Liquefied petroleum gasYesNo-9.7%99.3%4.0%23.2%4.9%-3.1%2.1%12 of 2060%-4.6
055Utility natural gasYesYes4.7%40.5%14.5%18.9%9.7%5.3%3.9%13 of 2065%1.2
0551Residential natural gasYesYes16.9%26.0%4.7%15.5%8.9%5.1%4.0%12 of 2060%4.3
0552Commercial natural gasYesYes22.6%31.6%4.8%19.1%10.9%5.9%4.0%12 of 2060%5.6
0553Industrial natural gasYesYes19.4%47.2%3.1%21.9%10.8%4.4%2.9%13 of 2065%6.7
0554Natural gas to electric powerYesNo-12.5%58.8%34.0%23.0%10.1%5.4%3.8%12 of 2060%-3.3
056Crude petroleum (domestic production)YesYes9.1%48.6%-22.3%8.0%4.9%-2.0%5.4%13 of 2065%1.7
0561Crude petroleum (domestic production)YesYes9.1%48.6%-22.3%8.0%4.9%-2.0%5.4%13 of 2065%1.7
057Petroleum products, refinedYesYes10.2%57.4%-15.3%13.7%8.2%0.1%6.5%13 of 2065%1.6
0571GasolineYesNo-5.5%67.0%-23.1%6.6%3.8%-2.2%5.0%12 of 2060%-1.1
0572Kerosene and jet fuelsYesYes37.2%50.2%-27.0%14.6%8.9%0.2%6.9%14 of 2070%5.4
0573Light fuel oilsYesYes21.1%54.5%-5.8%20.8%13.0%2.6%8.0%15 of 2075%2.7
0574Residual fuels (heavy fuel oils, incl. #5, #6, & other residual fuels)YesNo-6.7%70.7%12.0%21.3%1.8%-2.9%5.3%11 of 2055%-1.3
0576Finished lubricantsYesYes22.9%14.6%-0.6%11.9%9.0%4.1%6.8%14 of 2070%3.4
0578Lubricating oil base stocksYesYes30.7%67.3%-14.3%23.3%15.4%1.7%6.5%13 of 2065%4.7
058Asphalt and other petroleum and coal products, n.e.c.YesNo-4.6%48.7%11.9%16.7%9.4%0.8%9.0%12 of 2060%-0.5
0581Asphalt and other petroleum and coal products, n.e.c.YesNo-4.6%48.7%11.9%16.7%9.4%0.8%9.0%12 of 2060%-0.5
06Chemicals and allied productsYesYes2.2%22.9%0.7%8.1%4.5%2.7%4.3%17 of 2085%0.5
061Industrial chemicalsYesNo-2.8%44.5%-3.1%10.8%4.1%1.0%4.7%11 of 2055%-0.6
0613Basic inorganic chemicalsYesYes30.2%12.6%-0.8%13.3%8.8%3.3%6.3%12 of 2060%4.8
0614Basic organic chemicalsYesNo-7.5%50.5%-3.6%10.3%3.3%0.6%4.4%11 of 2055%-1.7
062Paints and allied productsYesYes20.4%13.9%1.4%11.6%8.6%3.9%4.5%17 of 2085%4.5
0621Prepared paintYesYes20.7%15.4%1.6%12.3%9.0%4.6%4.8%18 of 2090%4.3
0622Paint materialsYesYes21.7%8.9%0.7%10.1%7.7%2.2%3.7%16 of 2080%5.9
0623Allied and miscellaneous paint productsYesYes10.0%17.6%1.2%9.4%6.3%2.9%4.6%17 of 2085%2.2
063Drugs and pharmaceuticalsYesNo1.9%2.9%1.8%2.2%2.5%4.4%4.5%20 of 20100%0.4
0631Medicinal and botanical chemicals, drugs, and other productsYesYes1.7%0.3%0.4%0.8%1.2%0.4%1.7%14 of 2070%1.0
0637Biological products, including diagnosticsYesNo0.5%9.6%2.4%4.1%3.6%2.8%2.8%18 of 2090%0.2
0638Pharmaceutical preparationsYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%2.4%5.0%5.1%20 of 20100%0.4
064Fats and oils, inedibleYesYes12.8%49.7%15.2%24.9%11.6%2.1%6.1%12 of 2060%2.1
0641Fats and oils, inedibleYesYes12.8%49.7%15.2%24.9%11.6%2.1%6.1%12 of 2060%2.1
065Agricultural chemicals and chemical productsYesYes18.9%49.5%3.8%22.6%13.4%4.5%5.7%13 of 2065%3.3
0651Mixed fertilizersYesYes14.9%36.2%4.6%17.9%10.6%4.0%4.8%13 of 2065%3.1
0652Fertilizer materialsYesYes5.5%100.6%9.8%32.4%16.8%3.9%7.4%13 of 2065%0.7
0653Other agricultural chemicalsYesYes45.1%6.4%-1.7%14.9%10.6%5.0%3.5%14 of 2070%12.8
066Plastic resins and materialsYesNo-10.6%36.3%5.6%8.8%3.0%1.8%3.7%14 of 2070%-2.9
0662Thermoplastic resins and plastics materialsYesNo-13.9%39.4%6.8%8.6%2.5%1.6%3.7%14 of 2070%-3.7
0663Thermosetting resins and plastics materialsYesYes13.3%17.0%-0.7%9.6%6.1%2.7%3.7%16 of 2080%3.6
067Other chemicals and allied productsYesYes10.7%8.7%0.3%6.5%4.6%2.8%2.9%19 of 2095%3.6
0671Soaps and detergentsYesYes11.7%6.1%0.5%6.0%4.1%2.2%2.6%17 of 2085%4.5
0672Polish and other sanitation goodsYesYes6.3%4.2%1.0%3.8%4.5%3.0%2.4%17 of 2085%2.6
0675Cosmetics and other toilet preparationsYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%2.6%2.2%1.7%1.3%17 of 2085%4.8
0679Misc. chemical prod. and preparationsYesYes13.0%13.7%0.3%8.8%5.8%3.6%4.1%19 of 2095%3.2
07Rubber and plastic productsYesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%9.7%6.1%3.3%3.6%17 of 2085%2.3
071Rubber and rubber productsYesYes10.7%11.0%0.3%7.2%4.7%1.8%3.2%14 of 2070%3.3
0711Synthetic rubber, inc. styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene propyleneYesNo1.0%19.8%0.1%6.6%4.2%0.0%3.5%13 of 2065%0.3
0712Tires, tubes, tread, & repair materialsYesYes15.2%8.3%0.3%7.7%4.9%1.9%3.5%15 of 2075%4.3
0713Miscellaneous rubber productsYesYes10.8%10.1%0.5%7.0%4.8%2.5%2.9%17 of 2085%3.7
072Plastic productsYesYes7.8%24.1%0.7%10.5%6.5%3.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.1
0721Plastic construction productsYesYes9.4%33.3%6.4%15.7%9.7%5.4%5.0%17 of 2085%1.9
0722Unsupported plastic film, sheet and other shapesYesYes5.0%26.2%1.1%10.2%5.9%3.3%3.9%16 of 2080%1.3
0723Laminated plastic sheets, rods, and tubesYesYes12.9%7.6%1.2%7.1%4.8%3.3%2.7%16 of 2080%4.9
0726Parts for manufacturing from plasticsYesYes4.9%16.2%-1.2%6.4%4.2%2.8%2.3%16 of 2080%2.1
0729Other plastic productsYesYes5.7%19.3%-0.4%7.9%5.3%3.7%3.7%15 of 2075%1.5
072APlastic packaging productsYesYes7.6%25.6%-1.7%9.9%6.3%3.1%3.7%16 of 2080%2.0
072BConsumer, institutional, and commercial products, n.e.c.YesYes13.9%25.2%-0.2%12.5%7.7%4.6%3.7%16 of 2080%3.8
072CRecyclable plasticsNoNo-13.4%30.4%4.8%5.8%3.9%-0.8%3.7%16 of 2080%-3.6
08Lumber and wood productsYesNo-3.5%16.4%16.1%9.3%5.5%4.1%2.9%13 of 2065%-1.2
081LumberNoNo-24.4%19.6%38.3%7.8%3.2%3.7%2.2%10 of 2050%-10.9
0811Softwood lumberYesNo-25.9%14.1%52.5%8.9%4.2%4.4%2.7%12 of 2060%-9.5
0812Hardwood lumberYesNo-21.0%34.3%10.7%5.5%1.1%2.5%1.4%11 of 2055%-15.0
082MillworkYesYes8.0%17.7%7.9%11.1%7.6%5.1%3.6%19 of 2095%2.2
0821General millworkYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%9.0%6.2%4.2%3.0%19 of 2095%3.6
0822Prefabricated structural membersYesNo-0.5%32.0%30.7%19.7%13.7%9.2%5.8%14 of 2070%-0.1
083PlywoodYesYes2.3%14.2%30.3%15.0%6.5%4.4%3.6%11 of 2055%0.6
0831Softwood veneer and plywoodNoNo-1.9%10.0%52.8%18.1%6.0%4.2%4.0%9 of 2045%-0.5
0835Hardwood veneer and plywoodYesYes9.9%22.4%0.6%10.6%7.2%4.7%3.6%11 of 2055%2.8
084Other wood productsYesYes4.9%17.1%2.9%8.1%6.5%4.2%2.8%16 of 2080%1.7
0841Wood pallets and pallet containers, wood and metal combinationYesYes5.1%32.8%2.6%12.7%10.2%6.4%4.2%16 of 2080%1.2
0842Wood boxesYesNo-2.7%8.3%6.4%3.9%3.3%2.0%2.2%17 of 2085%-1.3
0849Miscellaneous wood productsYesYes6.8%4.0%2.3%4.3%3.6%2.6%1.9%17 of 2085%3.6
085Logs, bolts, timber, pulpwood and wood chipsYesYes4.8%7.8%3.2%5.2%2.8%1.8%2.2%15 of 2075%2.2
0851Logs, bolts, timber, pulpwood and wood chipsYesYes4.8%7.8%3.2%5.2%2.8%1.8%2.2%15 of 2075%2.2
086Prefabricated wood buildings & componentsYesYes6.3%25.6%6.2%12.3%8.5%5.4%3.8%17 of 2085%1.6
0861Prefabricated wood buildings & componentsYesYes6.3%25.6%6.2%12.3%8.5%5.4%3.8%17 of 2085%1.6
087Treated wood and contract wood preservingYesYes8.6%6.1%12.4%9.0%6.1%3.7%3.2%15 of 2075%2.7
0871Treated wood and contract wood preservingYesYes8.6%6.1%12.4%9.0%6.1%3.7%3.2%15 of 2075%2.7
09Pulp, paper, and allied productsYesYes9.3%16.0%3.0%9.3%5.5%3.1%2.9%16 of 2080%3.2
091Pulp, paper, and prod., ex. bldg. paperYesYes8.7%18.6%1.6%9.4%5.3%3.1%3.2%15 of 2075%2.7
0911Wood pulpYesYes26.5%42.8%1.8%22.5%5.8%3.6%4.0%12 of 2060%6.7
0912Recyclable paperNoNo-61.9%90.7%95.1%12.3%-10.6%-6.3%0.3%9 of 2045%-200.6
0913PaperYesYes8.8%17.9%-1.9%7.9%5.8%2.7%2.7%12 of 2060%3.2
0914PaperboardYesYes10.3%24.2%0.0%11.0%6.0%4.2%3.9%11 of 2055%2.7
0915Converted paper and paperboard productsYesYes14.4%11.6%0.5%8.6%5.7%3.4%3.2%16 of 2080%4.5
0916Pressure-sensitive productsYesYes14.5%11.2%0.7%8.6%6.3%2.9%2.8%15 of 2075%5.3
092Building paper & building board mill prods.YesNo-11.7%13.6%60.7%17.2%7.9%4.7%4.8%11 of 2055%-2.4
0922Hardboard, particleboard & fiberboard prods.YesNo-11.7%13.6%60.7%17.2%7.8%4.7%4.8%11 of 2055%-2.5
094Publications, printed matter and printing materialYesYes14.3%9.5%1.5%8.3%5.9%3.1%2.9%16 of 2080%4.8
0944Books printingYesYes23.9%11.8%2.2%12.3%8.4%4.7%2.9%16 of 2080%8.1
0945Manifold business forms printingYesNo0.2%4.8%2.6%2.5%3.5%2.6%2.9%16 of 2080%0.1
0947Commercial printingYesYes14.8%9.8%0.8%8.3%5.9%2.9%2.9%16 of 2080%5.0
0948Blankbooks, binders, and bookbinding workYesYes11.3%8.6%9.6%9.8%7.3%5.0%2.9%16 of 2080%3.8
0949Services for the printing tradeNoNo1.9%3.2%1.5%8.3%5.9%0.4%2.9%16 of 2080%0.7
10Metals and metal productsYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
101Iron and steelYesNo-24.2%90.6%10.0%16.7%9.1%3.6%5.3%12 of 2060%-4.6
1011Iron oresYesYes11.9%20.7%6.7%12.9%10.8%1.7%4.1%15 of 2075%2.9
1012Iron and steel scrapYesNo-27.6%37.6%44.0%12.8%3.8%0.0%6.9%12 of 2060%-4.0
1015Foundry and forge shop productsYesYes12.5%12.2%3.0%9.2%5.7%2.7%3.5%15 of 2075%3.6
1017Steel mill productsYesNo-28.5%134.4%2.1%19.6%11.3%4.9%5.5%12 of 2060%-5.2
102Nonferrous metalsYesNo-0.6%19.2%12.2%10.0%6.4%2.5%5.1%14 of 2070%-0.1
1021Nonferrous metal oresYesNo0.8%8.7%21.6%10.0%9.4%3.7%10.7%15 of 2075%0.1
1022Primary nonferrous metalsYesNo-9.7%24.1%17.4%9.6%5.0%1.0%4.4%12 of 2060%-2.2
1023Nonferrous scrapYesNo-3.8%13.2%23.1%10.2%5.9%1.7%6.5%14 of 2070%-0.6
1024Secondary nonferrous metalsYesNo2.1%18.2%12.3%10.7%6.7%2.6%5.5%14 of 2070%0.4
1025Nonferrous mill shapesYesNo-2.9%26.1%3.3%8.2%5.0%2.5%3.4%12 of 2060%-0.9
1026Nonferrous wire and cableYesYes5.1%30.3%8.0%13.9%8.1%3.1%5.1%12 of 2060%1.0
1027Nonferrous forge shop productsNoNo7.9%7.4%1.0%5.4%4.4%1.8%1.4%14 of 2070%5.8
1028Nonferrous foundry shop productsYesYes11.2%12.9%2.7%8.8%4.9%2.6%3.2%15 of 2075%3.5
103Metal containersYesYes18.3%21.6%0.7%13.2%9.0%4.5%4.0%14 of 2070%4.6
1031Metal cans and can componentsYesYes23.4%15.3%0.1%12.5%8.3%4.0%3.6%15 of 2075%6.5
1032Barrels, drums, pails and other metal containersYesYes3.1%45.3%3.3%15.7%11.9%6.6%5.6%16 of 2080%0.6
104HardwareYesYes5.0%17.5%1.8%7.9%5.6%3.3%3.0%18 of 2090%1.7
1041Hardware, n.e.c.YesYes3.6%25.8%1.4%9.7%6.7%3.9%3.4%19 of 2095%1.1
1042Hand and edge toolsYesYes7.7%4.7%2.5%4.9%4.0%2.4%2.5%19 of 2095%3.1
105Plumbing fixtures and fittingsYesYes8.6%5.4%1.9%5.3%4.7%3.2%3.0%20 of 20100%2.8
1054Plumbing fixture fittings and trimYesYes9.6%4.3%1.9%5.2%5.1%3.3%3.2%20 of 20100%3.0
1056Enameled iron & metal sanitary wareYesYes8.9%8.4%2.9%6.7%5.0%3.7%3.8%20 of 20100%2.3
106Heating equipmentYesYes10.8%21.3%0.4%10.5%8.2%4.9%4.5%20 of 20100%2.4
1061Steam and hot water equipmentYesYes12.7%15.0%1.2%9.4%6.8%4.1%4.6%19 of 2095%2.8
1062Furnaces and heaters, including partsYesYes19.0%12.2%1.6%10.7%9.0%4.9%3.6%17 of 2085%5.3
1063Other heating equipment, non-electric, including partsYesYes15.6%17.4%0.9%11.0%8.3%5.0%4.0%20 of 20100%3.9
1064Domestic heating stovesYesYes13.5%10.1%1.4%8.2%5.7%3.9%3.7%17 of 2085%3.6
1066Domestic water heatersYesNo-3.2%43.3%-2.4%10.6%8.5%5.3%6.8%15 of 2075%-0.5
107Fabricated structural metal productsYesYes5.2%41.6%2.2%15.1%10.4%5.4%4.7%17 of 2085%1.1
1071Metal doors, sash, and trimYesYes10.2%38.6%2.9%16.3%11.3%6.5%4.7%18 of 2090%2.2
1072Metal tanksYesYes10.7%34.8%4.5%15.9%12.1%5.1%4.5%14 of 2070%2.4
1073Sheet metal productsYesYes6.9%36.9%-0.3%13.4%9.2%4.7%4.0%14 of 2070%1.8
1074Structural, architectural, and pre-engineered metal productsYesYes3.1%50.6%0.9%16.1%11.1%5.6%5.0%16 of 2080%0.6
1075Heat exchangers and steam condensersYesYes12.8%15.5%1.1%9.6%7.5%4.6%4.4%18 of 2090%2.9
1076Fabricated steel plateYesYes5.0%33.3%7.1%14.5%8.8%4.4%4.2%15 of 2075%1.2
1079Prefabricated metal buildingsYesNo-4.0%40.7%12.2%14.8%9.9%6.2%6.3%14 of 2070%-0.6
108Miscellaneous metal productsYesYes8.1%14.0%0.7%7.5%5.7%2.8%2.7%17 of 2085%3.0
1081Bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, and washersYesYes15.1%16.6%4.4%11.9%8.9%4.8%4.2%17 of 2085%3.6
1083Lighting fixturesYesYes7.0%7.4%1.7%5.3%4.8%3.0%2.3%20 of 20100%3.0
1086Ordnance and ordnance accessories, n.e.c.YesYes4.9%19.6%0.0%7.8%2.6%0.1%1.8%17 of 2085%2.7
1088Fabricated ferrous wire productsYesYes13.6%29.9%1.2%14.3%11.2%5.5%5.5%16 of 2080%2.5
1089Other miscellaneous metal productsYesYes6.8%13.0%0.1%6.5%4.9%2.3%2.3%15 of 2075%3.0
11Machinery and equipmentYesYes9.1%7.1%1.0%5.7%4.2%2.4%1.6%16 of 2080%5.5
111Agricultural machinery and equipmentYesYes12.5%14.6%1.0%9.2%6.7%3.9%3.5%20 of 20100%3.6
1114Agricultural machinery and equipmentYesYes12.5%14.7%1.0%9.2%6.7%3.9%3.4%20 of 20100%3.6
112Construction machinery and equipmentYesYes8.7%10.1%1.2%6.6%5.1%3.1%3.2%20 of 20100%2.7
112ATractors and attachments, ex. partsYesYes5.1%9.7%1.0%5.2%4.6%2.7%2.9%19 of 2095%1.8
112BPower cranes, draglines, & shovels (excavators) (incl. surface mining equipment) (excl. parts)YesYes11.1%8.5%0.9%6.7%4.8%2.9%2.7%19 of 2095%4.1
112CMixers, pavers, and related equipment (excluding parts)YesYes15.6%13.5%2.4%10.3%8.4%5.0%3.7%17 of 2085%4.2
112DOff-highway, equipment, ex. partsYesYes10.3%7.0%1.7%6.3%4.5%2.8%3.3%20 of 20100%3.1
112JMisc. construction machinery and equipmentYesYes8.4%12.1%1.8%7.4%5.4%3.5%3.2%20 of 20100%2.7
112KParts for construction machinery and equipment, sold separatelyYesYes12.2%10.7%0.7%7.8%5.7%3.1%3.2%20 of 20100%3.9
113Metalworking machinery and equipmentYesYes8.1%7.3%0.7%5.3%4.0%2.5%2.2%19 of 2095%3.7
1132Power-driven handtools, including parts and attachmentsYesYes6.1%9.9%2.4%6.1%4.2%3.1%2.0%18 of 2090%3.1
1133Welding machines and equipmentYesYes7.1%13.5%1.2%7.1%5.7%3.7%4.1%19 of 2095%1.8
1134Industrial process furnaces and ovensYesYes11.3%8.2%2.3%7.2%5.3%3.3%2.6%19 of 2095%4.3
1135Cutting tools and accessoriesYesYes6.2%4.1%0.9%3.7%3.1%2.0%2.1%20 of 20100%3.0
1136Abrasive productsYesYes9.6%11.3%2.4%7.7%5.6%3.6%3.2%20 of 20100%3.0
1137Metal cutting machine toolsYesYes3.3%4.9%1.9%3.3%2.5%1.8%2.1%18 of 2090%1.6
1138Metal forming machine toolsYesYes5.3%3.6%1.8%3.5%3.2%2.2%2.3%18 of 2090%2.3
1139Tools, dies, jigs, fixtures & ind. moldsYesYes7.9%6.3%-1.5%4.1%3.1%1.6%1.1%14 of 2070%6.9
114General purpose machinery and equipmentYesYes13.4%10.1%1.8%8.3%6.2%3.9%3.6%20 of 20100%3.7
1141Pumps, compressors, and equipmentYesYes16.0%7.6%0.7%7.9%5.8%3.9%3.7%20 of 20100%4.3
1142Elevators, escalators, and other liftsYesYes5.0%16.7%0.9%7.3%5.8%3.8%2.6%16 of 2080%1.9
1143Fluid power equipmentYesYes11.4%8.7%1.1%7.0%5.2%3.3%3.6%20 of 20100%3.2
1144Industrial material handling equipmentYesYes9.6%14.4%1.7%8.5%6.2%4.0%3.8%19 of 2095%2.6
1145Mechanical power transmission equipmentYesYes15.2%8.0%1.7%8.2%6.1%3.6%3.8%18 of 2090%4.0
1146Scales and balancesYesYes10.1%11.9%1.1%7.6%6.8%4.5%3.3%20 of 20100%3.1
1147Air purification equipment and industrial and commercial fans and blowersYesYes10.3%9.6%1.8%7.1%5.9%3.7%3.3%19 of 2095%3.1
1148Air conditioning and refrigeration equipYesYes19.3%14.7%2.6%12.0%8.8%5.0%3.7%19 of 2095%5.3
1149Miscellaneous general purpose equipmentYesYes10.9%6.9%2.4%6.7%5.3%3.4%3.7%20 of 20100%3.0
115Electronic computers and computer equipmentNoNo4.9%4.3%-3.4%1.9%0.2%-1.3%-4.2%2 of 2010%-1.2
1151Electronic computersNoNo2.0%15.7%-5.8%3.6%-1.2%-3.2%-9.9%2 of 2010%-0.2
1152Computer storage devicesNoNo5.3%3.1%-3.7%1.5%2.0%0.3%-6.1%5 of 2025%-0.9
1154Computer peripheral equipment and partsNoNo6.4%-1.2%-1.6%1.1%-0.5%-0.4%-0.7%7 of 2035%-9.3
116Special industry machinery and equipmentYesYes11.1%11.6%2.1%8.2%5.7%3.3%2.5%19 of 2095%4.5
1161Food products machineryYesYes10.5%7.1%2.7%6.7%5.2%3.6%3.5%20 of 20100%3.0
1162Textile machinery and equipmentYesYes5.7%1.0%1.0%2.6%1.6%0.9%0.8%14 of 2070%6.8
1163Sawmill and woodworking machineryYesYes10.6%9.5%2.3%7.4%6.6%4.9%3.4%18 of 2090%3.1
1164Paper industries machineryYesYes9.8%5.6%0.4%5.2%3.9%2.6%2.3%20 of 20100%4.3
1165Printing trades machinery and equipmentYesYes1.4%7.0%-0.6%2.6%1.8%1.3%1.1%14 of 2070%1.3
1166Other special industry machineryYesYes11.5%16.5%4.0%10.5%7.0%3.6%2.1%16 of 2080%5.4
1167Packing, packaging, and bottling machinery and partsYesYes9.8%10.0%-1.7%5.9%4.5%3.4%3.0%19 of 2095%3.3
1168Service industry machinery and partsYesYes12.4%8.9%1.6%7.6%5.2%3.5%3.0%20 of 20100%4.1
1169Commercial laundry and drycleaning machinery productsYesYes15.4%5.7%0.4%7.0%5.4%3.5%3.4%20 of 20100%4.5
117Electrical machinery and equipmentYesYes7.1%5.2%0.6%4.2%3.2%1.6%0.7%11 of 2055%10.3
1171Wiring devicesYesYes11.2%24.8%6.0%13.7%8.9%4.5%4.3%17 of 2085%2.6
1172Integrating and measuring instrumentsYesYes4.4%-0.2%-0.1%1.3%0.6%0.5%0.9%14 of 2070%4.8
1173Motors, generators, motor generator setsYesYes10.9%12.1%0.1%7.6%5.6%3.0%3.2%17 of 2085%3.4
1174Transformers and power regulatorsYesYes19.5%36.2%0.8%17.9%12.3%5.7%5.5%15 of 2075%3.5
1175Switchgear, switchboard, industrial controls equipmentYesYes20.4%9.8%1.8%10.4%7.1%3.9%3.5%18 of 2090%5.9
1176Communications and related equipment and miscellaneous electronic systems & equipmentYesYes4.3%3.6%2.6%3.5%3.3%2.0%1.0%15 of 2075%4.3
1177Electric lamp bulbs, tubes, and componentsNoNo7.3%3.6%-0.1%3.6%-1.3%-3.6%-1.2%9 of 2045%-6.1
1178Electronic components and accessoriesNoNo4.4%2.1%-2.6%1.2%0.7%-0.1%-1.5%5 of 2025%-2.9
1179Miscellaneous electrical machinery and equipmentYesYes7.2%2.3%0.6%3.3%2.6%1.4%1.0%13 of 2065%7.4
118Miscellaneous instrumentsYesYes9.6%3.5%1.3%4.7%3.6%2.6%2.1%20 of 20100%4.5
1181Automatic environmental controls for monitoring residential, commercial, and appliance useYesYes4.8%7.6%-1.5%3.5%3.9%2.3%1.7%17 of 2085%2.8
1182Industrial process control instrumentsYesYes13.7%2.9%3.2%6.5%4.1%2.7%2.8%20 of 20100%4.9
1184Fluid meters and counting devicesYesYes10.3%5.7%0.5%5.4%4.5%3.6%3.0%20 of 20100%3.4
1185Engineering and scientific instrumentsYesYes7.7%5.2%2.6%5.1%4.1%3.2%2.6%20 of 20100%2.9
1186Measuring instruments and lensesYesYes6.6%2.2%0.9%3.2%2.6%1.9%1.5%19 of 2095%4.5
1189Measuring & controlling devices, n.e.c.YesYes12.7%2.7%0.4%5.1%3.8%2.5%1.6%16 of 2080%7.8
119Miscellaneous machineryYesYes6.5%4.1%0.8%3.7%3.1%1.6%2.1%17 of 2085%3.1
1191Oil field and gas field machineryYesYes9.6%3.2%-0.2%4.1%2.8%1.5%3.0%15 of 2075%3.2
1192Mining machinery and equipmentYesYes11.5%14.3%2.3%9.3%8.1%4.7%4.8%20 of 20100%2.4
1193Office and store machines and equipmentNoNo0.7%2.5%-1.1%0.7%0.4%0.3%0.5%12 of 2060%1.4
1194Internal combustion enginesYesYes7.0%2.0%1.1%3.3%2.4%1.2%1.3%16 of 2080%5.6
1195Machine shop productsYesYes4.9%4.9%0.1%3.3%3.0%1.6%2.2%19 of 2095%2.3
1197Turbines and turbine generator setsYesYes2.2%3.4%3.5%3.1%3.1%1.3%2.2%17 of 2085%1.0
1198Parts & accesories for turbines, turbine generators, and turbine generator setsYesYes18.6%1.4%0.2%6.4%4.0%1.6%2.1%17 of 2085%8.9
12Furniture and household durablesYesYes8.4%10.9%1.6%6.9%5.3%3.1%2.5%20 of 20100%3.4
121Household furnitureYesYes7.5%13.3%0.9%7.1%5.2%3.3%2.8%19 of 2095%2.7
1211Metal household furnitureYesYes1.3%26.6%-7.5%5.9%6.5%4.5%2.9%13 of 2065%0.5
1212Wood household furnitureYesYes7.2%12.0%1.5%6.8%4.4%3.0%2.7%20 of 20100%2.7
1213Upholstered household furnitureYesYes10.6%16.1%1.1%9.1%6.0%3.6%2.8%19 of 2095%3.8
1214BeddingYesYes4.9%9.3%2.2%5.5%4.6%2.9%2.9%14 of 2070%1.7
1215Metal porch, lawn, outdoor & casual furnitureYesYes19.5%9.3%2.6%10.2%7.6%4.7%4.6%17 of 2085%4.3
1216Nonupholstered household furniture, except wood and metalYesYes7.5%2.0%0.4%7.1%5.2%3.3%2.8%19 of 2095%2.7
122Commercial furnitureYesYes12.9%12.5%1.9%9.0%7.0%4.2%3.3%18 of 2090%3.9
1221Wood office furniture and store fixturesYesYes11.8%10.7%0.6%7.6%5.6%3.5%2.6%20 of 20100%4.6
1222Nonwood furniture and store fixturesYesYes12.6%13.1%3.0%9.5%8.0%4.5%3.5%17 of 2085%3.6
1223Public building furnitureYesYes17.6%13.5%1.4%10.6%8.1%4.8%4.0%19 of 2095%4.4
1224Commercial furniture and fixtures, n.e.c.YesYes13.6%15.8%2.4%10.4%7.0%4.7%3.4%18 of 2090%4.0
123Floor coveringsYesNo0.8%7.4%0.3%2.8%2.5%1.9%2.6%16 of 2080%0.3
1231Carpets and rugsYesNo0.2%8.7%0.1%2.9%2.6%2.0%2.6%16 of 2080%0.1
1232Resilient floor coveringsYesYes4.0%1.2%1.2%2.1%2.0%1.2%2.6%16 of 2080%1.5
124Household appliancesYesYes8.3%8.3%1.9%6.1%5.1%2.3%1.8%13 of 2065%4.6
1241Major appliancesYesYes8.1%8.5%2.5%6.4%5.3%2.4%1.9%14 of 2070%4.4
1243Household vacuum cleaners, including parts and attachmentsYesYes9.1%8.3%1.9%6.1%3.1%1.6%0.7%13 of 2065%12.5
1244Electric housewares and fansYesYes8.8%7.4%-0.3%5.2%4.2%1.1%1.5%15 of 2075%6.0
1245Portable residential lighting fixtures, including parts and accessoriesYesYes8.3%9.8%4.6%7.6%6.7%4.1%3.2%16 of 2080%2.6
125Home electronic equipmentNoNo6.9%8.8%0.8%5.5%3.7%1.7%-0.5%9 of 2045%-13.4
1257Speakers and commercial sound equipmentNoNo7.1%10.1%1.5%6.2%3.8%2.0%-0.5%9 of 2045%-13.8
1258Other home electronic equipmentNoNo6.7%7.2%0.3%4.7%3.5%1.3%-0.5%9 of 2045%-13.0
126Other household durable goodsYesYes6.9%9.8%2.6%6.4%4.4%2.6%2.1%20 of 20100%3.3
1261Vitreous china, fine earthenware, and other pottery productsYesYes5.4%9.4%3.8%6.2%5.0%3.3%2.7%20 of 20100%2.0
1266Lawn/garden equipmentYesYes11.7%5.3%0.7%5.8%4.3%2.3%1.5%15 of 2075%8.0
1267Cutlery, flatware (except precious), razors and razor bladesYesYes9.4%5.6%2.0%5.6%3.3%2.1%2.2%18 of 2090%4.2
1268Metal kitchen utensil, pots, and pansYesYes7.4%11.1%0.2%6.1%5.1%3.0%2.8%18 of 2090%2.7
1269Window shades, blinds, and accessoriesYesYes32.0%11.1%2.2%14.5%8.8%5.1%3.4%16 of 2080%9.3
13Nonmetallic mineral productsYesYes13.2%7.8%2.1%7.6%5.7%4.1%3.9%19 of 2095%3.4
131GlassYesYes9.6%6.5%3.3%6.4%4.6%3.6%2.0%15 of 2075%4.9
1311Flat glassYesYes11.1%7.1%3.9%7.3%4.8%4.0%2.1%15 of 2075%5.2
1313Other finished glasswareYesYes4.9%4.5%1.7%3.7%4.0%2.5%1.6%16 of 2080%3.1
132Concrete ingredients and related productsYesYes12.2%4.1%3.8%6.6%5.3%4.7%4.3%19 of 2095%2.9
1321Construction sand, gravel, and crushed stoneYesYes11.9%4.1%4.4%6.7%5.6%4.6%4.6%20 of 20100%2.6
1322Cement, hydraulicYesYes13.0%4.2%1.9%6.2%4.6%4.9%3.6%17 of 2085%3.6
133Concrete productsYesYes14.9%8.4%2.7%8.5%6.3%4.8%4.2%18 of 2090%3.5
1331Concrete block and brickYesYes13.7%5.1%3.2%7.2%5.6%4.0%3.6%18 of 2090%3.8
1332Concrete pipeYesYes19.9%11.2%4.0%11.5%7.6%5.0%4.0%16 of 2080%5.0
1333Ready-mix concreteYesYes13.2%7.4%2.3%7.6%5.6%4.7%4.3%18 of 2090%3.1
1334Precast concrete productsYesYes13.3%10.0%4.7%9.3%7.3%5.0%4.3%19 of 2095%3.1
1335Prestressed concrete productsYesYes30.2%14.5%-0.6%14.0%9.6%6.6%4.3%18 of 2090%7.0
134Clay construction products ex. refractoriesYesYes9.0%5.4%2.0%5.5%3.7%2.5%1.9%16 of 2080%4.7
1342Brick and structural clay tileYesYes14.0%6.3%3.2%7.8%5.2%3.3%2.3%16 of 2080%6.2
1344Clay floor and wall tile, glazed and unglazedYesYes3.4%4.4%0.6%2.8%1.8%1.4%1.1%16 of 2080%3.2
1345Structural clay products, n.e.c.YesYes8.4%5.8%3.1%5.8%5.2%3.9%3.6%19 of 2095%2.3
135RefractoriesYesYes12.4%7.2%0.5%6.6%6.3%3.6%4.1%18 of 2090%3.1
1352Clay refractoriesYesYes6.0%13.3%2.6%7.2%6.1%3.3%4.4%18 of 2090%1.4
1353Nonclay refractoriesYesYes17.4%2.7%-1.1%6.1%6.5%3.7%3.6%18 of 2090%4.8
136Asphalt felts and coatingsYesYes17.7%11.7%2.3%10.4%8.0%3.6%5.7%12 of 2060%3.1
1361Prepared asphalt and tar roofing and siding productsYesYes18.7%12.4%2.6%11.1%8.4%4.3%6.0%13 of 2065%3.1
1362Roofing asphalts, pitches, coatings, and cementYesYes9.5%6.8%-0.5%5.2%4.6%-0.7%3.5%13 of 2065%2.7
137Gypsum productsYesYes16.5%20.2%3.7%13.3%7.5%7.2%5.1%15 of 2075%3.2
1371Gypsum productsYesYes16.5%20.2%3.7%13.3%7.5%7.2%5.1%15 of 2075%3.2
138Glass containersYesYes12.8%6.8%1.7%7.0%5.2%3.2%3.2%20 of 20100%4.0
1381Glass containersYesYes12.8%6.8%1.7%7.0%5.2%3.2%3.2%20 of 20100%4.0
139Other nonmetallic mineralsYesYes12.4%8.4%-0.5%6.6%4.9%2.7%3.8%16 of 2080%3.2
1392Insulation materialsYesYes13.5%17.2%1.5%10.5%6.7%4.7%3.7%17 of 2085%3.7
1394Paving mixtures and blocksYesYes15.7%8.8%-3.7%6.6%5.7%1.9%5.2%14 of 2070%3.0
1395Cut stone and stone productsYesYes13.7%11.9%3.5%9.6%7.6%4.5%2.4%15 of 2075%5.6
1398Gaskets, packing, and sealing devicesYesYes9.1%6.7%1.7%5.8%4.0%2.5%2.5%19 of 2095%3.7
1399Nonmetallic minerals and products, n.e.c.YesYes9.7%3.4%-0.7%4.1%2.7%2.5%3.4%18 of 2090%2.8
14Transportation equipmentYesYes4.6%3.9%0.9%3.1%2.2%1.6%1.7%20 of 20100%2.7
141Motor vehicles and equipmentYesYes4.8%4.6%0.7%3.3%2.2%1.6%1.3%17 of 2085%3.5
1411Motor vehiclesYesYes4.3%2.7%0.4%2.5%1.6%1.5%1.2%17 of 2085%3.5
1412Motor vehicles partsYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
1413Truck and bus bodiesYesYes16.0%8.0%1.3%8.3%6.5%3.8%3.4%19 of 2095%4.7
1414Truck trailersYesYes17.1%27.1%0.0%14.2%10.7%5.7%4.6%17 of 2085%3.7
1415Motor homes, built on purchased chassisYesYes2.8%4.5%3.2%3.5%2.7%2.0%1.6%18 of 2090%1.8
1416Travel trailers and campersYesYes7.9%21.7%3.9%10.9%7.7%5.2%3.9%19 of 2095%2.0
142Aircraft and aircraft equipmentYesYes4.4%1.6%1.3%2.4%2.0%1.6%2.4%19 of 2095%1.9
1421AircraftYesYes5.2%1.5%1.3%2.6%2.3%1.8%2.6%19 of 2095%2.0
1423Aircraft engine and engine partsYesYes4.3%1.8%1.1%2.4%1.9%1.5%2.7%20 of 20100%1.6
1425Other aircraft parts and equipmentYesYes2.7%1.6%1.3%1.8%1.6%1.4%1.5%17 of 2085%1.8
143Ships and boatsYesYes5.3%5.2%1.3%3.9%3.1%2.2%2.8%20 of 20100%1.9
1431ShipsYesYes2.4%4.0%0.7%2.4%1.9%1.2%2.5%17 of 2085%1.0
1432BoatsYesYes11.4%7.7%2.5%7.2%5.8%4.0%3.3%20 of 20100%3.4
144Railroad equipmentYesNo-1.0%5.1%0.3%1.4%1.0%0.9%2.3%15 of 2075%-0.5
149Transportation equipment, n.e.c.YesYes5.0%10.2%0.5%5.1%3.8%2.4%1.9%17 of 2085%2.6
1491Transportation equipment, n.e.c.YesYes5.0%10.2%0.5%5.1%3.8%2.4%1.9%17 of 2085%2.6
15Miscellaneous productsYesYes8.9%6.3%2.8%5.9%4.8%3.3%3.0%19 of 2095%3.0
151Toys, sporting goods, small arms, etc.YesYes11.5%9.7%0.3%7.1%5.2%3.0%2.2%16 of 2080%5.3
1511Toys, games, and children’s vehiclesYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%4.1%2.7%1.8%1.8%17 of 2085%2.5
1512Sporting and athletic goodsYesYes18.6%15.1%-0.7%10.7%7.7%4.0%2.4%14 of 2070%7.9
1513Small arms and ammunitionYesYes2.2%3.2%1.4%2.2%2.1%1.8%2.8%18 of 2090%0.8
152Tobacco products, incl. stemmed & redriedYesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%8.4%7.4%6.1%4.7%18 of 2090%2.4
1521Cigarettes, excluding electronicYesYes11.9%8.4%6.7%9.0%8.0%6.5%5.0%19 of 2095%2.4
1524Stemmed and redried tobaccoNoNo4.1%0.6%1.1%1.9%1.3%0.0%0.2%11 of 2055%18.6
1525Other tobacco productsYesYes7.9%5.1%5.9%6.3%5.4%4.7%4.7%18 of 2090%1.7
153NotionsYesYes6.7%12.6%0.6%6.5%4.2%3.0%3.5%18 of 2090%1.9
1532Fasteners, zippers, buttons, needles, pins, and bucklesYesYes6.7%12.6%0.6%6.5%4.2%3.0%3.6%18 of 2090%1.8
154Photographic equipment and suppliesYesYes6.6%7.2%-0.1%4.5%4.2%2.3%2.1%13 of 2065%3.1
1541Photographic and photocopying equipmentYesYes6.6%7.0%5.0%4.5%4.2%2.3%2.1%13 of 2065%3.1
1542Photographic suppliesYesYes7.4%7.3%-1.8%4.2%4.3%2.5%2.3%13 of 2065%3.2
155Mobile homesYesYes7.0%30.1%8.6%14.8%10.8%7.0%5.6%20 of 20100%1.3
1553Manufactured homes (mobile homes), all sizes (incl. multisection)YesYes7.0%30.1%8.6%14.8%10.8%7.1%5.5%20 of 20100%1.3
156Medical, surgical & personal aid devicesYesYes4.3%1.3%1.1%2.2%1.8%1.2%1.3%20 of 20100%3.3
1562Surgical and medical instrumentsYesYes3.7%0.5%1.1%1.7%1.0%0.8%0.7%14 of 2070%5.2
1563Medical and surgical appliances and suppliesYesYes4.6%2.9%0.4%2.6%2.2%1.1%1.3%18 of 2090%3.6
1564Ophthalmic goodsYesYes5.5%2.8%1.5%3.2%2.5%1.6%1.7%17 of 2085%3.3
1565Dental equipment and suppliesYesYes5.1%-1.4%5.2%2.9%4.3%3.8%4.3%20 of 20100%1.2
157Other industrial safety equipmentYesYes11.4%7.0%2.9%7.1%5.7%2.9%2.2%18 of 2090%5.1
1571Personal safety equipment and clothingYesYes11.4%7.0%2.9%7.1%5.7%2.9%2.2%18 of 2090%5.1
159Other miscellaneous productsYesYes13.2%8.7%2.1%7.9%6.3%3.4%2.8%18 of 2090%4.7
1591Burial casketsYesYes6.7%11.0%-0.5%5.6%5.2%4.1%4.6%19 of 2095%1.4
1593Musical instrumentsYesYes6.4%7.5%1.1%5.0%3.7%3.0%2.4%18 of 2090%2.7
1594Jewelry and jewelry productsYesYes9.2%2.0%6.7%5.9%4.2%1.6%3.5%15 of 2075%2.6
1595Pens, pencils, and marking devicesYesYes7.0%5.1%0.7%4.2%3.3%2.3%1.7%20 of 20100%4.0
1597Brooms and brushesYesYes6.2%4.2%0.2%3.5%2.8%1.9%2.0%19 of 2095%3.1
159AMiscellaneous products, n.e.c.YesYes16.0%11.9%1.4%9.6%8.0%4.4%2.9%16 of 2080%5.6
159DReproduction of audio and video media and softwareYesYes18.2%8.6%0.5%8.9%8.4%3.4%2.8%18 of 2090%6.4
Download 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List Here: 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List
NAICS PBA CodeIndustryNAICS PBA Industry DescriptionGood LIFO CandidateGood ’22 Election Candidate12M Ended Dec. ’2212M Ended Dec. ’2112M Ended Dec. ’203Y Annual Avg.5Y Annual Avg.10Y Annual Avg.20Y Annual Avg.Inflation Frequency ’03 – ’22Inflation Frequency Rate‘2022 vs. 20Y Annual Average Inflation Multiplier
311110Mfg.Animal food mfg.YesYes20.0%6.3%10.4%12.1%7.9%2.7%4.7%14 of 2070%4.3
311111Mfg.Dog and cat food manufacturingYesYes14.1%7.6%0.7%7.3%5.7%3.3%3.9%19 of 2095%3.6
311119Mfg.Other animal food manufacturingYesYes20.0%6.3%10.4%12.1%7.9%2.7%4.7%14 of 2070%4.3
311200Mfg.Grain & oilseed millingYesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
311211Mfg.Flour millingYesYes16.2%19.9%1.3%12.2%7.3%2.5%4.0%14 of 2070%4.1
311212Mfg.Rice millingYesYes17.3%6.7%5.4%9.7%8.1%0.8%5.4%13 of 2065%3.2
311213Mfg.Malt manufacturingNoNo11.5%2.7%-1.3%4.2%2.1%0.6%2.5%10 of 2050%4.6
311221Mfg.Wet corn millingYesYes45.0%6.0%17.6%21.8%13.4%1.0%6.4%11 of 2055%7.1
311224Mfg.Soybean and other oilseed processingYesYes7.9%60.0%15.2%25.7%14.0%5.2%5.4%11 of 2055%1.5
311225Mfg.Fats and oils refining and blendingYesYes7.9%60.0%15.2%25.7%14.0%5.2%5.4%11 of 2055%1.5
311230Mfg.Breakfast cereal manufacturingYesYes13.0%10.0%0.1%7.6%5.4%1.7%3.0%15 of 2075%4.3
311300Mfg.Sugar & confectionery product mfg.YesYes8.8%3.1%-1.4%3.4%3.0%1.6%2.8%16 of 2080%3.2
311313Mfg.Beet sugar manufacturingYesYes10.3%5.6%3.6%6.5%4.8%0.1%2.5%13 of 2065%4.1
311314Mfg.Cane sugar manufacturingYesYes7.2%6.1%5.8%6.4%4.8%2.3%3.6%16 of 2080%2.0
311340Mfg.Nonchocolate confectionery manufacturingYesYes11.6%3.2%2.3%5.6%4.5%2.4%2.8%19 of 2095%4.1
311351Mfg.Chocolate and confectionery mfg. from cacaoYesYes17.0%5.4%-4.4%5.6%4.8%2.3%2.8%15 of 2075%6.1
311352Mfg.Confectionery mfg. from purchased chocolateYesYes8.7%-3.0%-0.9%1.5%1.9%1.6%2.8%19 of 2095%3.1
311400Mfg.Fruit & vegetable preserving & speciality food mfg.YesYes18.2%4.5%3.8%8.6%5.4%3.2%3.5%17 of 2085%5.2
311411Mfg.Frozen fruit and vegetable manufacturingYesNo-0.1%21.4%8.0%9.4%3.0%1.9%3.4%12 of 2060%0.0
311412Mfg.Frozen specialty food manufacturingYesYes16.7%3.4%0.6%6.7%3.8%2.0%2.1%14 of 2070%7.8
311421Mfg.Fruit and vegetable canningYesYes14.9%4.3%4.4%7.8%3.6%2.9%3.4%16 of 2080%4.5
311422Mfg.Specialty canningYesYes23.2%7.2%-0.3%9.6%6.6%3.6%3.1%17 of 2085%7.5
311423Mfg.Dried and dehydrated food manufacturingYesYes12.0%0.1%5.5%5.8%3.8%3.0%3.5%17 of 2085%3.4
311500Mfg.Dairy product mfg.YesYes13.2%7.6%-3.0%5.7%4.6%1.8%3.0%12 of 2060%4.4
311511Mfg.Fluid milk manufacturingYesYes15.4%6.6%-0.9%6.8%5.3%2.4%3.6%12 of 2060%4.3
311512Mfg.Creamery butter manufacturingYesYes39.2%40.7%-26.0%13.2%4.8%5.9%4.6%11 of 2055%8.5
311513Mfg.Cheese manufacturingYesYes13.6%2.0%-5.1%3.2%3.8%1.2%2.7%11 of 2055%5.1
311514Mfg.Dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy productsYesNo1.5%18.5%4.1%7.8%5.1%0.0%2.1%14 of 2070%0.7
311520Mfg.Ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturingYesYes13.4%5.1%-1.9%5.4%3.9%2.6%2.7%18 of 2090%4.9
311610Mfg.Animal slaughtering & processingYesNo-3.3%20.0%2.7%6.0%4.4%2.1%3.2%14 of 2070%-1.0
311611Mfg.Animal, except poultry, slaughteringYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%5.6%4.6%2.0%3.3%15 of 2075%-0.2
311612Mfg.Meat processed from carcassesYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%5.6%4.6%2.0%3.3%15 of 2075%-0.2
311613Mfg.Rendering and meat byproduct processingYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%5.6%4.6%2.0%3.3%15 of 2075%-0.2
311615Mfg.Poultry processingYesNo-5.6%26.5%2.2%6.9%3.7%1.4%2.6%14 of 2070%-2.1
311710Mfg.Seafood product preparation & packagingYesNo-12.0%36.3%-0.5%6.1%5.1%4.4%4.3%13 of 2065%-2.8
311800Mfg.Bakeries, tortilla & dry pasta mfg.YesYes15.3%9.2%0.1%8.0%5.5%2.6%3.4%16 of 2080%4.5
311811Mfg.Retail bakeriesYesYes11.8%10.5%0.9%7.6%6.6%2.8%3.0%19 of 2095%3.9
311812Mfg.Commercial bakeriesYesYes14.2%4.8%-1.1%5.8%4.3%2.8%3.0%19 of 2095%4.7
311813Mfg.Frozen cakes and other pastries manufacturingYesYes13.0%3.0%2.0%5.9%4.0%2.6%3.2%18 of 2090%4.0
311821Mfg.Cookie and cracker manufacturingYesYes7.5%1.4%0.3%3.0%2.3%1.1%1.8%16 of 2080%4.1
311824Mfg.Dry pasta, dough, and flour mixes manufacturing from purchased flourYesYes15.3%9.2%0.1%8.0%5.5%2.6%3.4%16 of 2080%4.5
311830Mfg.Tortilla manufacturingYesYes20.4%1.7%1.0%7.3%5.0%3.0%2.7%16 of 2080%7.6
311900Mfg.Other food mfg. (including coffee, tea, flavorings & seasonings)YesYes13.7%6.1%2.2%7.2%5.1%3.0%3.0%17 of 2085%4.5
311911Mfg.Roasted nuts and peanut butter manufacturingYesNo-1.3%5.0%-8.8%-1.9%-1.0%0.4%2.7%11 of 2055%-0.5
311919Mfg.Other snack food manufacturingYesYes15.7%6.8%1.5%7.9%5.6%2.5%3.3%17 of 2085%4.7
311920Mfg.Coffee and tea manufacturingYesYes20.5%2.7%0.6%7.6%4.4%1.4%3.5%14 of 2070%5.8
311930Mfg.Flavoring syrup and concentrate manufacturingYesYes17.9%4.0%4.1%8.5%6.1%3.8%2.4%17 of 2085%7.6
311941Mfg.Mayonnaise, dressing, and sauce manufacturingYesYes14.1%15.7%0.1%9.7%6.4%2.7%3.3%15 of 2075%4.2
311942Mfg.Spice and extract manufacturingYesYes6.3%4.7%1.2%4.0%4.7%2.7%3.4%17 of 2085%1.9
311991Mfg.Perishable prepared food manufacturingYesYes20.4%1.7%1.0%7.3%5.0%3.0%2.7%16 of 2080%7.6
311999Mfg.All other miscellaneous food manufacturingYesYes13.7%6.1%2.2%7.2%5.1%3.0%3.0%17 of 2085%4.5
312000Mfg.Beverage & tobacco product mfg.YesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%8.4%7.4%6.1%4.7%18 of 2090%2.4
312111Mfg.Soft drink manufacturingYesYes13.7%8.5%2.9%8.3%6.4%4.4%2.8%20 of 20100%4.9
312112Mfg.Bottled water manufacturingYesYes18.2%5.6%3.6%8.9%5.7%1.7%2.8%20 of 20100%6.4
312113Mfg.Ice manufacturingYesYes29.8%3.5%-0.6%10.1%7.2%4.0%3.6%17 of 2085%8.3
312120Mfg.BreweriesYesYes6.6%0.3%0.7%2.5%2.0%1.5%2.3%19 of 2095%2.9
312130Mfg.WineriesYesYes8.7%2.9%2.9%4.8%3.0%1.9%1.6%17 of 2085%5.4
312140Mfg.DistilleriesYesYes2.8%-5.2%3.3%0.2%0.7%0.0%1.0%14 of 2070%2.7
312230Mfg.Tobacco manufacturingYesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%8.4%7.4%6.1%4.7%18 of 2090%2.4
313000Mfg.Textile millsYesYes7.9%15.4%-0.2%7.5%5.1%2.8%2.2%14 of 2070%3.5
313110Mfg.Fiber, yarn, and thread millsYesYes7.9%15.4%-0.2%7.5%5.1%2.8%2.2%14 of 2070%3.5
313210Mfg.Broadwoven fabric millsYesYes7.9%15.4%-0.2%7.5%5.1%2.8%2.2%14 of 2070%3.5
313220Mfg.Narrow fabric mills and schiffli embroideryYesYes13.7%13.5%0.6%9.1%5.9%5.1%3.5%19 of 2095%3.9
313230Mfg.Nonwoven fabric millsYesYes8.6%14.5%-2.3%6.7%5.7%2.7%2.5%12 of 2060%3.5
313240Mfg.Knit fabric millsYesYes9.4%10.0%1.8%7.0%5.3%2.8%1.7%17 of 2085%5.4
313310Mfg.Textile and fabric finishing millsYesYes7.9%15.4%-0.2%7.5%5.1%2.8%2.2%14 of 2070%3.5
313320Mfg.Fabric coating millsYesYes14.9%6.4%1.3%7.4%5.1%3.1%2.9%16 of 2080%5.1
314000Mfg.Textile product millsYesYes7.9%15.4%-0.2%7.5%5.1%2.8%2.2%14 of 2070%3.5
314110Mfg.Carpet and rug millsYesNo0.2%8.7%0.1%2.9%2.6%2.0%2.6%16 of 2080%0.1
314120Mfg.Curtain and linen millsYesNo1.8%3.9%0.1%1.9%1.0%2.2%2.0%18 of 2090%0.9
314910Mfg.Textile bag and canvas millsYesYes6.4%11.8%1.7%6.6%4.9%2.9%2.4%17 of 2085%2.7
314994Mfg.Rope, twine, tire cord, and tire fabric millsYesYes2.8%18.4%5.6%8.7%4.7%2.3%2.4%17 of 2085%1.2
314999Mfg.All other miscellaneous textile product millsYesYes6.4%11.8%1.7%6.6%4.9%2.9%2.4%17 of 2085%2.7
315000Mfg.Apparel mfg.YesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
315110Mfg.Hosiery and sock millsYesTBD5.1%1.7%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.7
315190Mfg.Other apparel knitting millsYesYes4.6%1.4%0.2%2.1%1.4%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.2
315210Mfg.Cut and sew apparel contractorsYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
315220Mfg.Men’s and boys’ cut and sew apparel manufacturingYesYes11.9%2.1%0.6%4.7%3.4%1.7%1.1%15 of 2075%10.8
315240Mfg.Women’s, girls’, and infants’ cut and sew apparel manufacturingYesNo0.4%4.2%-4.7%-0.1%0.0%0.3%1.1%15 of 2075%0.4
315280Mfg.Other cut and sew apparel manufacturingYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
315990Mfg.Accessories and other apparel manufacturingYesYes7.3%6.7%0.6%4.8%3.8%2.7%2.4%18 of 2090%3.0
316110Mfg.Leather & hide tanning & finishingNoNo-1.9%13.2%-0.6%3.3%-1.8%-3.0%-0.2%10 of 2050%7.6
316210Mfg.Footwear manufacturingYesYes3.3%3.1%1.1%2.5%1.6%0.9%1.0%15 of 2075%3.2
316990Mfg.Other leather & allied product mfg.YesYes4.2%3.0%1.1%2.8%2.3%2.3%1.8%20 of 20100%2.3
316992Mfg.Women’s handbag and purse manufacturingYesNo0.1%0.5%1.2%0.6%1.6%1.8%2.2%16 of 2080%0.0
316998Mfg.All other leather and allied good mfg.YesYes6.6%5.6%1.3%4.5%3.2%3.8%2.7%19 of 2095%2.4
321000Mfg.Wood product mfg.YesNo-3.5%16.4%16.1%9.3%5.5%4.1%2.9%13 of 2065%-1.2
321113Mfg.SawmillsYesNo-3.5%16.4%16.1%9.3%5.5%4.1%2.9%13 of 2065%-1.2
321114Mfg.Wood preservationYesYes3.7%3.9%-4.3%1.0%0.6%0.9%3.0%14 of 2070%1.2
321211Mfg.Hardwood veneer and plywood manufacturingYesYes9.9%22.4%0.6%10.6%7.2%4.7%3.6%11 of 2055%2.8
321212Mfg.Softwood veneer and plywood manufacturingNoNo-1.9%10.1%52.7%18.1%6.1%4.2%4.0%9 of 2045%-0.5
321213Mfg.Engineered wood member manufacturingYesNo-0.5%32.0%30.7%19.7%13.7%9.2%5.8%14 of 2070%-0.1
321214Mfg.Truss manufacturingYesNo-2.7%21.5%39.0%18.0%13.4%9.5%5.8%14 of 2070%-0.5
321219Mfg.Reconstituted wood product manufacturingYesYes27.7%15.5%1.9%14.6%9.1%6.1%3.9%17 of 2085%7.1
321911Mfg.Wood window and door manufacturingYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%9.0%6.2%4.2%3.0%19 of 2095%3.6
321912Mfg.Cut stock, resawing lumber, and planingYesNo-3.5%16.4%16.1%9.3%5.5%4.1%2.9%13 of 2065%-1.2
321918Mfg.Other millwork, including flooringYesYes4.9%33.2%1.2%12.2%5.6%4.2%2.4%15 of 2075%2.0
321920Mfg.Wood container and pallet manufacturingYesYes5.1%32.8%2.6%12.7%10.2%6.4%4.2%16 of 2080%1.2
321991Mfg.Manufactured home, mobile home, manufacturingYesYes7.0%30.1%8.6%14.8%10.8%7.0%5.6%20 of 20100%1.3
321992Mfg.Prefabricated wood building manufacturingYesYes6.3%25.6%6.2%12.3%8.5%5.4%3.8%17 of 2085%1.6
321999Mfg.Miscellaneous wood product manufacturingYesYes3.0%3.0%2.8%2.9%2.5%1.9%1.9%17 of 2085%1.5
322000Mfg.Paper mfg.YesYes8.7%18.6%1.6%9.4%5.3%3.1%3.2%15 of 2075%2.7
322110Mfg.Pulp millsYesYes8.7%18.6%1.6%9.4%5.3%3.1%3.2%15 of 2075%2.7
322121Mfg.Paper, except newsprint, millsYesYes8.8%17.9%-1.9%7.9%5.8%2.7%2.7%12 of 2060%3.2
322122Mfg.Newsprint millsYesYes8.8%17.9%-1.9%7.9%5.8%2.7%2.7%12 of 2060%3.2
322130Mfg.Paperboard millsYesYes10.5%24.1%0.7%11.4%6.1%4.1%3.9%12 of 2060%2.7
322211Mfg.Corrugated and solid fiber box manufacturingYesYes9.3%17.9%1.2%9.3%6.1%4.7%4.7%18 of 2090%2.0
322212Mfg.Folding paperboard box manufacturingYesYes15.0%15.4%0.0%9.9%6.4%4.3%3.6%15 of 2075%4.1
322219Mfg.Other paperboard container manufacturingYesYes14.4%11.6%0.5%8.6%5.7%3.4%3.2%16 of 2080%4.5
322220Mfg.Paper bag and coated and treated paper manufacturingYesYes14.4%11.6%0.5%8.6%5.7%3.4%3.2%16 of 2080%4.5
322230Mfg.Stationery product manufacturingYesYes24.7%10.8%0.6%11.6%8.4%4.7%3.4%17 of 2085%7.3
322291Mfg.Sanitary paper product manufacturingYesYes17.5%3.4%-0.3%6.6%4.5%1.9%2.0%13 of 2065%8.8
322299Mfg.All other converted paper product mfg.YesYes8.7%10.0%1.2%6.5%4.6%2.9%2.7%18 of 2090%3.2
323100Mfg.Printing & related support activitiesYesYes14.3%9.5%1.5%8.3%5.9%3.1%2.9%16 of 2080%4.8
323113Mfg.Commercial screen printingYesYes14.8%9.8%0.8%8.3%5.9%2.9%2.9%16 of 2080%5.0
323117Mfg.Books printingYesYes23.9%11.8%2.2%12.3%8.4%4.7%2.9%16 of 2080%8.1
323120Mfg.Support activities for printingYesYes14.3%9.5%1.5%8.3%5.9%3.1%2.9%16 of 2080%4.8
324100Mfg.Petroleum & coal products mfg.YesNo-4.6%48.7%11.9%16.7%9.4%0.8%9.0%12 of 2060%-0.5
324110Mfg.Petroleum refineriesYesYes10.2%57.4%-15.3%13.7%8.2%0.1%6.5%13 of 2065%1.6
324121Mfg.Asphalt paving mixture & block manufacturingYesYes15.7%8.8%-3.7%6.6%5.7%1.9%5.2%14 of 2070%3.0
324122Mfg.Asphalt shingle and coating materials manufacturingYesYes17.7%11.7%2.3%10.4%8.0%3.6%5.7%12 of 2060%3.1
324191Mfg.Petroleum lubricating oil and grease mfg.YesYes22.9%14.6%-0.6%11.9%9.0%4.1%6.8%14 of 2070%3.4
324199Mfg.All other petroleum and coal products mfg.YesYes6.5%39.4%28.7%24.1%12.5%2.4%9.0%12 of 2060%0.7
325100Mfg.Basic chemical mfg.YesNo-2.8%44.5%-3.1%10.8%4.1%1.0%4.7%11 of 2055%-0.6
325110Mfg.Petrochemical manufacturingYesNo-2.8%44.5%-3.1%10.8%4.1%1.0%4.7%11 of 2055%-0.6
325120Mfg.Industrial gas manufacturingYesYes12.6%21.8%-2.1%10.3%8.3%6.1%4.8%16 of 2080%2.6
325130Mfg.Synthetic dye and pigment manufacturingYesYes23.4%10.1%0.3%10.9%8.3%2.1%3.7%15 of 2075%6.4
325180Mfg.Other basic inorganic chemical manufacturingYesYes18.2%9.2%0.0%8.9%6.7%1.9%5.8%14 of 2070%3.2
325193Mfg.Ethyl alcohol manufacturingYesNo-20.6%94.5%1.2%16.0%10.6%0.6%3.6%15 of 2075%-5.8
325194Mfg.Cyclic crude, intermediate, and gum and wood chemical mfgYesNo3.5%43.1%0.3%14.1%8.2%3.9%4.9%12 of 2060%0.7
325199Mfg.All other basic organic chemical manufacturingYesYes14.1%22.7%-1.6%11.3%5.5%3.4%4.9%15 of 2075%2.9
325200Mfg.Resin, synthetic rubber & artificial & synthetic fibers & filaments mfg.YesNo2.2%22.9%0.7%8.1%4.5%2.7%4.3%17 of 2085%0.5
325211Mfg.Plastics material and resins mfgYesNo-10.6%36.3%5.6%8.8%3.0%1.8%3.7%14 of 2070%-2.9
325212Mfg.Synthetic rubber manufacturingYesNo1.0%19.8%0.1%6.6%4.2%0.0%3.5%13 of 2065%0.3
325220Mfg.Artificial fibers and filaments manufacturingYesYes5.2%22.0%-3.0%7.6%5.8%3.0%2.2%11 of 2055%2.4
325300Mfg.Pesticide, fertilizer & other agricultural chemical mfg.YesYes45.1%6.4%-1.7%14.9%10.6%5.0%3.5%14 of 2070%12.8
325311Mfg.Nitrogenous fertilizer manufacturingYesNo5.5%100.6%9.8%32.4%16.8%3.9%7.4%13 of 2065%0.7
325312Mfg.Phosphatic fertilizer manufacturingYesNo5.5%100.6%9.8%32.4%16.8%3.9%7.4%13 of 2065%0.7
325314Mfg.Fertilizer, mixing only, manufacturingYesYes14.9%36.2%4.6%17.9%10.6%4.0%4.8%13 of 2065%3.1
325320Mfg.Pesticide and other agricultural chemical manufacturingYesYes51.4%6.6%-2.2%16.4%11.9%5.2%3.5%14 of 2070%14.6
325410Mfg.Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg.YesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%2.4%5.0%5.1%20 of 20100%0.4
325411Mfg.Medicinal and botanical manufacturingYesYes1.7%0.3%0.4%0.8%1.2%0.4%1.7%14 of 2070%1.0
325412Mfg.Pharmaceutical preparation manufacturingYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%2.4%5.0%5.1%20 of 20100%0.4
325413Mfg.In-vitro diagnostic substance manufacturingYesNo-2.4%15.1%2.8%4.9%3.1%2.5%2.8%18 of 2090%-0.8
325414Mfg.Other biological product manufacturingYesNo0.5%9.6%2.4%4.1%3.6%2.8%2.8%18 of 2090%0.2
325500Mfg.Paint, coating & adhesive mfg.YesYes20.7%15.4%1.6%12.3%9.0%4.6%4.8%18 of 2090%4.3
325510Mfg.Paint and coating manufacturingYesYes20.7%15.4%1.6%12.3%9.0%4.6%4.8%18 of 2090%4.3
325520Mfg.Adhesive manufacturingYesYes18.0%11.5%1.5%10.1%6.9%3.9%4.1%18 of 2090%4.4
325600Mfg.Soap, cleaning compound & toilet preparation mfg.YesYes11.7%6.1%0.5%6.0%4.1%2.2%2.6%17 of 2085%4.5
325611Mfg.Soap and other detergent manufacturingYesYes11.7%6.1%0.5%6.0%4.1%2.2%2.6%17 of 2085%4.5
325612Mfg.Polish and other sanitation good mfg.YesYes6.3%4.2%1.0%3.8%4.5%3.0%2.4%17 of 2085%2.6
325613Mfg.Surface active agent manufacturingYesYes10.6%16.6%2.7%9.8%4.5%3.6%4.2%15 of 2075%2.5
325620Mfg.Toilet preparation manufacturingYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%2.6%2.2%1.7%1.3%17 of 2085%4.8
325900Mfg.Other chemical product & preparation mfg.YesYes11.0%11.3%-0.2%7.2%5.1%2.5%3.6%15 of 2075%3.0
325910Mfg.Printing ink manufacturingYesYes9.1%8.7%0.7%6.1%4.3%3.2%3.3%17 of 2085%2.8
325920Mfg.Explosives manufacturingYesYes14.7%5.7%-0.2%6.6%4.9%2.9%3.1%16 of 2080%4.7
325991Mfg.Custom compounding of purchased resinsYesNo0.0%24.4%-1.7%6.9%4.7%2.5%3.6%14 of 2070%0.0
325992Mfg.Photographic film and chemical manufacturingYesYes6.6%7.2%-0.1%4.5%4.2%2.3%2.1%13 of 2065%3.1
325998Mfg.Other miscellaneous chemical product manufacturingYesYes11.0%11.3%-0.2%7.2%5.1%2.5%3.6%15 of 2075%3.0
326000Mfg.Plastics & rubber products mfg.YesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%9.7%6.1%3.3%3.6%17 of 2085%2.3
326111Mfg.Plastics bag and pouch manufacturingYesYes4.3%19.8%2.9%8.7%5.1%3.0%4.0%16 of 2080%1.1
326112Mfg.Plastics packaging film and sheet mfg.YesYes7.8%24.1%0.7%10.5%6.5%3.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.1
326113Mfg.Nonpackaging plastics film and sheet mfg.YesYes7.8%24.1%0.7%10.5%6.5%3.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.1
326121Mfg.Unlaminated plastics profile shape manufacturingYesYes7.8%24.1%0.7%10.5%6.5%3.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.1
326122Mfg.Plastics pipe and pipe fitting manufacturingYesYes9.4%33.3%6.4%15.7%9.7%5.4%5.0%17 of 2085%1.9
326130Mfg.Laminated plastics plate, sheet (except packaging), and shape manufacturingYesYes12.9%7.6%1.2%7.1%4.8%3.3%2.7%16 of 2080%4.9
326140Mfg.Polystyrene foam product manufacturingYesYes7.8%24.1%0.7%10.5%6.5%3.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.1
326150Mfg.Urethane and other foam product mfg.YesYes7.8%24.1%0.7%10.5%6.5%3.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.1
326160Mfg.Plastics bottle manufacturingYesYes10.4%16.5%-3.9%7.3%4.8%1.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.8
326191Mfg.Plastics plumbing fixture manufacturingYesYes4.6%20.2%2.6%8.8%6.2%3.4%3.7%16 of 2080%1.2
326199Mfg.All other plastics product manufacturingYesYes7.8%24.1%0.7%10.5%6.5%3.8%3.7%16 of 2080%2.1
326211Mfg.Tire manufacturing, except retreadingYesYes15.3%8.1%0.3%7.7%4.9%1.9%3.5%15 of 2075%4.3
326220Mfg.Rubber and plastics hose and belting mfg.YesNo3.0%13.2%0.5%5.4%4.6%2.8%3.4%18 of 2090%0.9
326291Mfg.Rubber product mfg. for mechanical useYesYes12.6%10.4%0.2%7.6%5.0%2.5%2.7%16 of 2080%4.8
326299Mfg.All other rubber product manufacturingYesYes12.6%10.4%0.2%7.6%5.0%2.5%2.7%16 of 2080%4.8
327100Mfg.Clay product & refractory mfg.YesYes9.0%5.4%2.0%5.5%3.7%2.5%1.9%16 of 2080%4.7
327110Mfg.Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture mfg.YesNo2.3%14.3%5.1%7.1%5.7%3.9%2.7%20 of 20100%0.9
327120Mfg.Clay building material and refractories mfg.YesYes14.0%6.3%3.2%7.8%5.2%3.3%2.3%16 of 2080%6.2
327210Mfg.Glass & glass product mfg.YesYes9.6%6.5%3.3%6.4%4.6%3.6%2.0%15 of 2075%4.9
327211Mfg.Flat glass manufacturingYesYes11.1%7.1%3.9%7.3%4.8%4.0%2.1%15 of 2075%5.2
327212Mfg.Other pressed and blown glass and glasswareYesYes4.9%4.5%1.7%3.7%4.0%2.5%1.6%16 of 2080%3.1
327213Mfg.Glass container manufacturingYesYes12.8%6.8%1.7%7.0%5.2%3.2%3.2%20 of 20100%4.0
327215Mfg.Glass product mfg. made of purchased glassYesYes4.9%4.5%1.7%3.7%4.0%2.5%1.6%16 of 2080%3.1
327300Mfg.Cement & concrete product mfg.YesYes14.9%8.4%2.7%8.5%6.3%4.8%4.2%18 of 2090%3.5
327310Mfg.Cement manufacturingYesYes13.0%4.2%1.9%6.2%4.6%4.9%3.6%17 of 2085%3.6
327320Mfg.Ready-mix concrete manufacturingYesYes13.2%7.4%2.3%7.6%5.6%4.7%4.3%18 of 2090%3.1
327331Mfg.Concrete block and brick manufacturingYesYes13.7%5.1%3.2%7.2%5.6%4.0%3.6%18 of 2090%3.8
327332Mfg.Concrete pipe manufacturingYesYes19.9%11.2%4.0%11.5%7.6%5.0%4.0%16 of 2080%5.0
327390Mfg.Other concrete product manufacturingYesYes14.9%8.4%2.7%8.5%6.3%4.8%4.2%18 of 2090%3.5
327400Mfg.Lime & gypsum product mfg.YesYes16.5%20.2%3.7%13.3%7.5%7.2%5.1%15 of 2075%3.2
327410Mfg.Lime manufacturingYesYes31.0%2.6%3.5%11.7%8.2%4.6%5.6%19 of 2095%5.6
327420Mfg.Gypsum product manufacturingYesYes17.9%21.9%4.9%14.7%7.5%7.3%4.9%15 of 2075%3.6
327900Mfg.Other nonmetallic mineral product mfg.YesYes12.4%8.4%-0.5%6.6%4.9%2.7%3.8%16 of 2080%3.2
327910Mfg.Abrasive product manufacturingYesYes17.0%6.5%2.3%8.4%6.0%3.4%2.8%17 of 2085%6.0
327991Mfg.Cut stone and stone product manufacturingYesYes13.7%11.9%3.5%9.6%7.6%4.5%2.4%15 of 2075%5.6
327992Mfg.Ground or treated minerals and earths mfg.YesYes9.7%2.8%-1.7%3.5%2.8%2.6%3.9%19 of 2095%2.5
327993Mfg.Mineral wool manufacturingYesYes14.4%20.5%2.3%12.1%7.1%5.3%4.1%16 of 2080%3.5
327999Mfg.All other miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturingYesYes12.4%8.4%-0.5%6.6%4.9%2.7%3.8%16 of 2080%3.2
331000Mfg.Primary metal mfg.YesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
331110Mfg.Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy mfgYesNo-28.5%134.4%2.1%19.6%11.3%4.9%5.5%12 of 2060%-5.2
331210Mfg.Iron and steel pipe and tube manufacturing from purchased steelYesNo-0.4%24.4%5.3%9.3%6.0%3.0%5.0%16 of 2080%-0.1
331221Mfg.Rolled steel shape mfgYesNo-50.6%229.9%0.1%17.7%9.9%4.7%5.4%13 of 2065%-9.3
331222Mfg.Steel wire drawingYesYes11.8%37.8%-0.6%15.2%11.3%4.8%7.4%11 of 2055%1.6
331313Mfg.Alumina refining and primary aluminum productionYesNo-9.7%24.2%17.4%9.6%5.0%1.0%4.4%12 of 2060%-2.2
331314Mfg.Secondary smelting and alloying of aluminumNoNo-0.3%51.3%30.5%25.3%9.1%4.0%3.6%10 of 2050%-0.1
331315Mfg.Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil mfgNoNo-5.9%30.2%-2.0%6.3%4.3%2.6%2.4%9 of 2045%-2.5
331318Mfg.Other aluminum rolling, drawing, and extrudingNoNo-5.9%30.2%-2.0%6.3%4.3%2.6%2.4%9 of 2045%-2.5
331410Mfg.Nonferrous metal (except aluminum) smelting and refiningYesNo2.1%18.2%12.3%10.7%6.7%2.6%5.5%14 of 2070%0.4
331420Mfg.Copper rolling, drawing, extruding, and alloyingYesNo-3.5%27.1%19.4%13.5%6.5%2.8%7.0%11 of 2055%-0.5
331491Mfg.Nonferrous metal (except copper and aluminum) rolling, drawing, and extrudingYesNo-2.9%26.1%3.3%8.2%5.0%2.5%3.4%12 of 2060%-0.9
331492Mfg.Secondary smelting, refining, and alloying of nonferrous metal (except copper and aluminum)YesNo2.1%18.2%12.3%10.7%6.7%2.6%5.5%14 of 2070%0.4
331511Mfg.Iron foundriesYesYes12.5%12.2%3.0%9.2%5.7%2.7%3.5%15 of 2075%3.6
331512Mfg.Steel investment foundriesYesYes12.5%12.2%3.0%9.2%5.7%2.7%3.5%15 of 2075%3.6
331513Mfg.Steel foundries, except investmentYesYes12.5%12.2%3.0%9.2%5.7%2.7%3.5%15 of 2075%3.6
331523Mfg.Nonferrous metal die-casting foundriesYesYes11.2%12.9%2.7%8.8%4.9%2.6%3.2%15 of 2075%3.5
331524Mfg.Aluminum foundries, except die-castingYesYes11.2%12.9%2.7%8.8%4.9%2.6%3.2%15 of 2075%3.5
331529Mfg.Other nonferrous metal foundries, except die-castingYesYes11.2%12.9%2.7%8.8%4.9%2.6%3.2%15 of 2075%3.5
332000Mfg.Fabricated metal product mfg.YesYes5.2%41.6%2.2%15.1%10.4%5.4%4.7%17 of 2085%1.1
332111Mfg.Iron and steel forgingYesYes12.5%12.2%3.0%9.2%5.7%2.7%3.5%15 of 2075%3.6
332112Mfg.Nonferrous forgingYesYes7.9%7.4%1.0%5.4%4.4%1.8%1.4%14 of 2070%5.8
332114Mfg.Custom roll formingNoNo-18.5%108.6%-1.6%18.7%10.0%3.5%3.6%8 of 2040%-5.2
332117Mfg.Powder metallurgy part mfgYesYes5.5%10.5%-0.2%5.2%4.1%1.8%1.8%15 of 2075%3.1
332119Mfg.Other metal stamping, except automotiveYesNo2.0%24.8%1.0%8.7%5.6%3.2%3.4%15 of 2075%0.6
332215Mfg.Metal cookware, cutlery, and flatware mfgYesYes6.9%9.8%2.6%6.4%4.4%2.6%2.1%20 of 20100%3.3
332216Mfg.Saw blade, handsaw, and hand and edge tool mfgYesYes7.7%4.7%2.5%4.9%4.0%2.4%2.5%19 of 2095%3.1
332311Mfg.Prefabricated metal buildings and components mfgYesNo-3.4%44.3%14.5%16.9%11.0%7.1%6.6%13 of 2065%-0.5
332312Mfg.Fabricated structural metal mfgYesYes9.8%43.7%-0.9%16.1%11.9%6.2%5.0%16 of 2080%2.0
332313Mfg.Plate work mfgYesYes5.0%33.3%7.1%14.5%8.8%4.4%4.2%15 of 2075%1.2
332321Mfg.Metal window and door mfgYesYes10.2%38.6%2.9%16.3%11.3%6.5%4.7%18 of 2090%2.2
332322Mfg.Sheet metal work mfgYesYes6.9%36.9%-0.3%13.4%9.2%4.7%4.0%14 of 2070%1.8
332323Mfg.Ornamental and architectural metal work mfgYesYes8.9%54.7%5.0%20.9%14.7%8.0%6.6%16 of 2080%1.3
332410Mfg.Power boiler and heat exchanger mfgYesYes10.8%21.3%0.4%10.5%8.2%4.9%4.5%20 of 20100%2.4
332420Mfg.Metal tanks, heavy gauge, mfgYesYes10.7%34.8%4.5%15.9%12.1%5.1%4.5%14 of 2070%2.4
332431Mfg.Metal can mfgYesYes23.4%15.3%0.1%12.5%8.3%4.0%3.6%15 of 2075%6.5
332439Mfg.Other metal container mfgYesNo3.1%45.3%3.3%15.7%11.9%6.6%5.6%16 of 2080%0.6
332510Mfg.Hardware mfgYesYes5.0%17.5%1.8%7.9%5.6%3.3%3.0%18 of 2090%1.7
332613Mfg.Spring mfgYesYes6.8%13.0%0.1%6.5%4.9%2.3%2.3%15 of 2075%3.0
332618Mfg.Other fabricated wire product mfgYesYes13.6%29.9%1.2%14.3%11.2%5.5%5.5%16 of 2080%2.5
332710Mfg.Machine shopsYesYes4.9%4.9%0.1%3.2%3.0%1.6%2.2%19 of 2095%2.2
332721Mfg.Precision turned product mfgYesYes4.9%4.9%0.1%3.3%3.0%1.6%2.2%19 of 2095%2.3
332722Mfg.Bolt, nut, screw, rivet, and washer mfgYesYes15.1%16.6%4.4%11.9%8.9%4.8%4.2%17 of 2085%3.6
332811Mfg.Metal heat treatingYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
332812Mfg.Metal coating and nonprecious engravingYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
332813Mfg.Electroplating, anodizing and coloring metalYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
332911Mfg.Industrial valve mfgYesYes14.9%4.9%2.8%7.4%5.9%4.2%4.7%20 of 20100%3.2
332912Mfg.Fluid power valve and hose fitting mfgYesYes11.4%8.7%1.1%7.0%5.2%3.3%3.6%20 of 20100%3.2
332913Mfg.Plumbing fixture fitting and trim mfgYesYes8.6%5.4%1.9%5.3%4.7%3.2%3.0%20 of 20100%2.8
332919Mfg.Other metal valve and pipe fitting mfgYesYes10.9%6.9%2.4%6.7%5.3%3.4%3.7%20 of 20100%3.0
332991Mfg.Ball and roller bearing mfgYesYes8.1%6.6%-0.3%4.8%4.7%2.9%3.3%18 of 2090%2.5
332992Mfg.Small arms ammunition mfgYesNo4.8%7.0%2.6%4.8%4.4%3.2%5.5%17 of 2085%0.9
332993Mfg.Ammunition, except small arms, manufacturingYesYes8.1%14.0%0.7%7.5%5.7%2.8%2.7%17 of 2085%3.0
332996Mfg.Fabricated pipe and pipe fitting mfgYesNo-0.4%24.4%5.3%9.3%6.0%3.0%5.0%16 of 2080%-0.1
332999Mfg.Miscellaneous fabricated metal product mfgYesNo2.4%22.3%1.7%8.4%6.4%3.2%3.0%16 of 2080%0.8
333000Mfg.Machinery mfg.YesYes9.1%7.1%1.0%5.7%4.2%2.4%1.6%16 of 2080%5.5
333111Mfg.Farm machinery and equipment mfgYesYes12.5%14.6%1.0%9.2%6.7%3.9%3.5%20 of 20100%3.6
333112Mfg.Lawn and garden equipment mfgYesYes11.7%5.3%0.7%5.8%4.3%2.3%1.5%15 of 2075%8.0
333120Mfg.Construction machinery mfgYesYes8.7%10.1%1.2%6.6%5.1%3.1%3.2%20 of 20100%2.7
333131Mfg.Mining machinery and equipment mfgYesYes11.5%14.3%2.3%9.3%8.1%4.7%4.8%20 of 20100%2.4
333132Mfg.Oil and gas field machinery and equipment mfgYesYes7.3%3.2%-0.4%3.3%2.2%1.2%2.9%17 of 2085%2.5
333241Mfg.Food product machinery mfgYesYes10.5%7.1%2.7%6.7%5.2%3.6%3.5%20 of 20100%3.0
333242Mfg.Semiconductor machinery mfgYesYes7.7%-1.4%2.8%3.0%7.9%3.9%2.0%14 of 2070%25.7
333243Mfg.Sawmill, woodworking and paper machinery mfgYesYes10.6%9.5%2.3%7.4%6.6%4.9%3.4%18 of 2090%3.1
333244Mfg.Printing machinery and equipment mfgYesNo0.3%6.2%-2.8%1.2%1.1%-0.3%1.1%14 of 2070%0.3
333249Mfg.Other industrial machinery mfgYesYes11.5%16.5%4.0%10.5%7.0%3.6%2.1%16 of 2080%5.4
333314Mfg.Optical instrument and lens mfgYesYes2.8%2.7%0.6%2.0%1.6%0.8%0.9%13 of 2065%3.3
333316Mfg.Photographic and photocopying equipment mfgYesYes6.6%7.2%-0.1%4.5%4.2%2.3%2.1%13 of 2065%3.1
333318Mfg.Other commercial and service industry machinery mfgYesYes11.1%11.6%2.1%8.2%5.7%3.3%2.5%19 of 2095%4.5
333413Mfg.Fan, blower, air purification equipment mfgYesYes12.8%18.6%1.0%10.6%7.8%4.7%3.3%19 of 2095%3.9
333414Mfg.Heating equipment (except warm air furnaces) mfgYesYes10.8%21.3%0.4%10.5%8.2%4.9%4.5%20 of 20100%2.4
333415Mfg.Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and forced air heating equipment mfgYesYes19.3%14.7%2.6%12.0%8.8%5.0%3.7%19 of 2095%5.3
333511Mfg.Industrial mold mfgYesYes11.2%5.4%-2.1%4.7%2.7%1.5%0.9%13 of 2065%11.9
333514Mfg.Special tool, die, jig, and fixture mfgYesYes5.5%6.9%-1.1%3.7%3.4%1.8%1.3%16 of 2080%4.3
333515Mfg.Cutting tool and machine tool accessory mfgYesYes6.2%4.1%0.9%3.7%3.1%2.0%2.1%20 of 20100%3.0
333517Mfg.Machine tool mfgYesYes8.1%7.3%0.7%5.3%4.0%2.5%2.2%19 of 2095%3.7
333519Mfg.Rolling mill and other metalworking machinery mfgYesYes8.1%7.3%0.7%5.3%4.0%2.5%2.2%19 of 2095%3.7
333611Mfg.Turbine and turbine generator set units mfgYesYes2.2%3.4%3.5%3.1%3.1%1.3%2.2%17 of 2085%1.0
333612Mfg.Speed changer, drive, and gear mfgYesYes16.0%7.1%1.6%8.1%5.8%3.5%3.7%19 of 2095%4.4
333613Mfg.Mechanical power transmission equipment mfgYesYes15.2%8.0%1.7%8.2%6.1%3.6%3.8%18 of 2090%4.0
333618Mfg.Other engine equipment mfgYesYes7.0%2.0%1.1%3.3%2.4%1.2%1.3%16 of 2080%5.6
333912Mfg.Air and gas compressor mfgYesYes21.2%9.4%1.3%10.3%8.3%5.1%3.7%20 of 20100%5.7
333914Mfg.Measuring, dispensing, and other pumping equipment mfgYesYes16.0%7.6%0.7%7.9%5.8%3.9%3.7%20 of 20100%4.3
333921Mfg.Elevator and moving stairway mfgYesYes5.0%16.7%0.9%7.3%5.8%3.8%2.6%16 of 2080%1.9
333922Mfg.Conveyor and conveying equipment mfgYesYes9.2%15.2%2.3%8.8%6.4%3.8%3.6%18 of 2090%2.6
333923Mfg.Overhead cranes, hoists and monorail systems mfgYesYes12.8%16.9%0.7%9.9%7.6%4.7%4.1%19 of 2095%3.1
333924Mfg.Industrial truck, trailer, and stacker mfgYesYes10.2%12.4%1.5%8.0%5.8%3.9%3.9%20 of 20100%2.6
333991Mfg.Power-driven handtool mfgYesYes6.1%9.9%2.4%6.1%4.2%3.1%2.0%18 of 2090%3.1
333992Mfg.Welding and soldering equipment mfgYesYes7.1%13.5%1.2%7.1%5.7%3.7%4.1%19 of 2095%1.8
333993Mfg.Packaging machinery mfgYesYes9.8%9.9%-1.6%5.9%4.5%3.4%3.0%19 of 2095%3.3
333994Mfg.Industrial process furnace and oven mfgYesYes9.8%7.4%2.4%6.5%4.8%3.2%2.6%19 of 2095%3.8
333995Mfg.Fluid power cylinder and actuator mfgYesYes12.4%13.4%0.6%8.6%6.5%3.8%3.6%20 of 20100%3.5
333996Mfg.Fluid power pump and motor mfgYesYes7.9%5.0%0.8%4.5%3.5%2.3%2.8%20 of 20100%2.8
333997Mfg.Scale and balance mfgYesYes10.1%11.9%1.1%7.6%6.8%4.5%3.3%20 of 20100%3.1
333999Mfg.All other miscellaneous general purpose machinery mfgYesYes7.4%5.9%0.4%4.5%3.7%2.4%2.3%18 of 2090%3.2
334000Mfg.Computer & electronic product mfg.NoNo4.9%4.3%-3.4%1.9%0.2%-1.3%-4.2%2 of 2010%-1.2
334111Mfg.Electronic computer manufacturingNoNo2.0%15.7%-5.8%3.6%-1.2%-3.2%-9.9%2 of 2010%-0.2
334112Mfg.Computer storage device mfgNoNo5.3%3.1%-3.7%1.5%2.0%0.3%-6.1%5 of 2025%-0.9
334118Mfg.Computer terminal and other computer peripheral equipment mfgNoNo4.9%4.3%-3.4%1.9%0.2%-1.3%-4.2%2 of 2010%-1.2
334210Mfg.Telephone apparatus mfgNoNo8.1%-0.3%0.7%2.8%1.4%0.6%-0.5%6 of 2030%-17.6
334220Mfg.Broadcast and wireless communications equipment mfgYesYes4.3%3.6%2.6%3.5%3.3%2.0%1.0%15 of 2075%4.3
334290Mfg.Other communications equipment mfgYesYes4.3%3.6%2.6%3.5%3.3%2.0%1.0%15 of 2075%4.3
334310Mfg.Audio and video equipment mfgNoNo6.9%8.8%0.8%5.5%3.7%1.7%-0.5%9 of 2045%-13.4
334412Mfg.Bare printed circuit board mfgNoNo4.7%4.4%1.6%3.6%2.1%1.2%0.9%5 of 2025%5.2
334413Mfg.Semiconductors and related device mfgNoNo4.7%1.9%1.3%2.6%0.9%-0.7%-1.5%5 of 2025%-3.2
334417Mfg.Electronic connector mfgYesYes15.5%3.7%2.7%7.1%5.1%2.9%2.5%19 of 2095%6.2
334418Mfg.Printed circuit assembly mfgNoNo-3.3%1.8%-1.6%-1.1%-0.8%0.0%-0.8%5 of 2025%4.2
334419Mfg.Other electronic component mfgNoNo4.4%2.1%-2.6%1.2%0.7%-0.1%-1.5%5 of 2025%-2.9
334510Mfg.Electromedical apparatus mfgNoNo3.4%0.2%1.5%1.7%1.1%0.3%-0.5%8 of 2040%-6.5
334511Mfg.Search, detection, and navigation instrumentsYesYes2.5%4.4%4.4%3.8%4.4%2.0%1.0%15 of 2075%2.5
334512Mfg.Automatic environmental control mfgYesYes4.8%7.6%-1.5%3.5%3.9%2.3%1.7%17 of 2085%2.8
334513Mfg.Industrial process variable instrumentsYesYes13.7%2.9%3.2%6.5%4.1%2.7%2.8%20 of 20100%4.9
334514Mfg.Totalizing fluid meters and counting devicesYesYes10.3%5.7%0.5%5.4%4.5%3.6%3.0%20 of 20100%3.4
334515Mfg.Electricity and signal testing instruments mfgYesYes4.4%-0.2%-0.1%1.3%0.6%0.5%0.9%14 of 2070%4.8
334516Mfg.Analytical laboratory instrument mfgYesYes7.2%2.1%0.9%3.4%2.8%2.3%1.7%20 of 20100%4.3
334517Mfg.Irradiation apparatus mfgYesYes8.1%-0.6%-2.3%1.6%1.0%0.4%0.5%13 of 2065%17.1
334519Mfg.Other measuring and controlling device mfgYesYes12.7%2.7%0.4%5.1%3.8%2.5%1.6%16 of 2080%7.8
334610Mfg.Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical mediaYesYes13.2%8.7%2.1%7.9%6.3%3.4%2.8%18 of 2090%4.7
335000Mfg.Electrical equipment, appliance & component mfg.YesYes7.1%5.2%0.6%4.2%3.2%1.6%0.7%11 of 2055%10.3
335110Mfg.Electric lamp bulb and part mfgNoNo7.3%3.6%-0.1%3.6%-1.3%-3.6%-1.2%9 of 2045%-6.1
335121Mfg.Residential electric lighting fixture mfgYesNo2.5%18.1%-2.9%5.5%6.2%3.5%2.8%16 of 2080%0.9
335122Mfg.Nonresidential electric lighting fixture mfgYesYes7.0%7.4%1.7%5.3%4.8%3.0%2.3%20 of 20100%3.0
335129Mfg.Other lighting equipment mfgYesYes7.6%4.4%1.4%4.4%3.4%2.2%1.8%18 of 2090%4.2
335210Mfg.Small electrical appliance mfgYesYes8.8%7.4%-0.3%5.2%4.2%1.1%1.5%15 of 2075%6.0
335220Mfg.Major household appliance mfgYesYes8.1%8.5%2.5%6.4%5.3%2.4%1.9%14 of 2070%4.4
335311Mfg.Electric power and specialty transformer mfgYesYes8.9%35.0%0.8%14.0%10.2%5.0%4.1%14 of 2070%2.1
335312Mfg.Motor and generator mfgYesYes10.9%12.1%0.1%7.6%5.6%3.0%3.2%17 of 2085%3.4
335313Mfg.Switchgear and switchboard apparatus mfgYesYes21.7%11.6%1.8%11.4%8.0%4.0%3.5%18 of 2090%6.3
335314Mfg.Relay and industrial control mfgYesYes2.2%1.3%2.4%2.0%1.3%1.0%1.9%17 of 2085%1.2
335911Mfg.Storage battery mfgYesYes8.4%10.8%-1.4%5.8%4.1%2.9%4.3%16 of 2080%2.0
335912Mfg.Primary battery mfgYesYes12.9%3.2%0.2%5.3%2.6%2.3%1.7%13 of 2065%7.7
335921Mfg.Fiber optic cable mfgNoNo16.6%3.4%-2.6%5.5%3.0%1.0%-0.8%5 of 2025%-22.0
335929Mfg.Other communication and energy wire mfgYesYes5.1%30.3%8.0%13.9%8.1%3.1%5.1%12 of 2060%1.0
335931Mfg.Current-carrying wiring device mfgYesYes6.9%9.5%1.8%6.0%4.1%2.0%2.6%17 of 2085%2.7
335932Mfg.Noncurrent-carrying wiring device mfgYesYes14.3%38.8%10.2%20.5%13.0%6.6%5.8%16 of 2080%2.5
335991Mfg.Carbon and graphite product mfgYesYes29.3%-16.9%1.0%2.8%5.9%3.7%4.1%12 of 2060%7.1
335999Mfg.Miscellaneous electrical equipment mfgYesYes7.1%5.2%0.6%4.2%3.2%1.6%0.7%11 of 2055%10.3
336000Mfg.Transportation equipment mfg.YesYes4.8%4.6%0.7%3.3%2.2%1.6%1.3%17 of 2085%3.5
336110Mfg.Automobile, light truck and utility vehicle mfgYesYes1.9%2.1%1.1%1.7%1.1%0.8%0.6%12 of 2060%3.2
336120Mfg.Heavy duty truck mfgYesYes1.9%1.4%1.2%1.5%1.3%1.6%1.2%17 of 2085%1.6
336211Mfg.Motor vehicle body mfgYesYes4.8%4.6%0.7%3.3%2.2%1.6%1.3%17 of 2085%3.5
336212Mfg.Truck trailer mfgYesYes17.1%27.1%0.0%14.2%10.7%5.7%4.6%17 of 2085%3.7
336213Mfg.Motor home mfgYesYes2.8%4.5%3.2%3.5%2.7%2.0%1.6%18 of 2090%1.8
336214Mfg.Travel trailer and camper mfgYesYes7.9%21.7%3.9%10.9%7.7%5.2%3.9%19 of 2095%2.0
336310Mfg.Motor vehicle gasoline engine and engine parts mfgYesYes7.0%2.0%1.1%3.3%2.4%1.2%1.3%16 of 2080%5.6
336320Mfg.Motor vehicle electrical and electronic equipment mfgYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
336330Mfg.Motor vehicle steering and suspension components (except spring) manufacturingYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
336340Mfg.Motor vehicle brake system mfgYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
336350Mfg.Motor vehicle transmission and power train parts manufacturingYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
336360Mfg.Motor vehicle seating and interior trim mfgYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
336370Mfg.Motor vehicle metal stampingYesYes3.9%6.3%-1.1%3.0%2.5%1.8%1.8%15 of 2075%2.2
336390Mfg.Other motor vehicle parts mfgYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
336411Mfg.Aircraft mfgYesYes5.2%1.5%1.3%2.6%2.3%1.8%2.6%19 of 2095%2.0
336412Mfg.Aircraft engine and engine parts mfgYesYes4.3%1.8%1.1%2.4%1.9%1.5%2.7%20 of 20100%1.6
336413Mfg.Other aircraft parts and equipment mfgYesYes2.7%1.6%1.3%1.8%1.6%1.4%1.5%17 of 2085%1.8
336510Mfg.Railroad rolling stock mfgYesNo-1.0%5.1%0.3%1.4%1.0%0.9%2.3%15 of 2075%-0.5
336611Mfg.Ship building and repairingYesYes2.4%4.0%0.7%2.4%1.9%1.2%2.5%17 of 2085%1.0
336612Mfg.Boat buildingYesYes11.4%7.7%2.5%7.2%5.8%4.0%3.3%20 of 20100%3.4
336991Mfg.Motorcycle, bicycle, and parts mfgYesYes5.7%2.7%2.4%3.6%7.7%2.7%2.1%14 of 2070%2.8
336999Mfg.All other transportation equipment mfgYesYes6.4%3.5%-0.1%3.2%2.3%2.4%0.9%17 of 2085%6.9
337000Mfg.Furniture & related product mfg.YesYes8.4%10.9%1.6%6.9%5.3%3.1%2.5%20 of 20100%3.4
337110Mfg.Wood kitchen cabinet and countertop mfgYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%9.0%6.2%4.2%3.0%19 of 2095%3.6
337121Mfg.Upholstered household furniture mfgYesYes10.6%16.1%1.1%9.1%6.0%3.6%2.8%19 of 2095%3.8
337122Mfg.Nonupholstered wood household furniture mfgYesYes7.2%12.0%1.5%6.8%4.4%3.0%2.7%20 of 20100%2.7
337124Mfg.Metal household furniture mfgYesNo1.3%26.6%-7.5%5.9%6.5%4.5%2.9%13 of 2065%0.5
337125Mfg.Household furniture, except wood or metal, mfgYesYes7.5%13.3%0.9%7.1%5.2%3.3%2.8%19 of 2095%2.7
337127Mfg.Institutional furniture mfgYesYes12.9%12.5%1.9%9.0%7.0%4.2%3.3%18 of 2090%3.9
337211Mfg.Wood office furniture mfgYesYes11.8%10.7%0.6%7.6%5.6%3.5%2.6%20 of 20100%4.6
337212Mfg.Custom architectural woodwork and millworkYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%9.0%6.2%4.2%3.0%19 of 2095%3.6
337214Mfg.Office furniture, except wood, mfgYesYes12.6%13.1%3.0%9.5%8.0%4.5%3.5%17 of 2085%3.6
337215Mfg.Showcases, partitions, shelving, and lockers mfgYesYes13.6%15.8%2.4%10.4%7.0%4.7%3.4%18 of 2090%4.0
337910Mfg.Mattress mfgYesNo0.5%2.6%1.1%1.4%3.2%2.1%2.9%14 of 2070%0.2
337920Mfg.Blind and shade mfgYesYes32.0%11.1%2.2%14.5%8.8%5.1%3.4%16 of 2080%9.3
339110Mfg.Medical equipment & supplies mfg.YesYes4.3%1.3%1.1%2.2%1.8%1.2%1.3%20 of 20100%3.3
339112Mfg.Surgical and medical instrument mfgYesYes3.7%0.5%1.1%1.7%1.0%0.8%0.7%14 of 2070%5.2
339113Mfg.Surgical appliance and supplies mfgYesYes4.6%2.9%0.4%2.6%2.2%1.1%1.3%18 of 2090%3.6
339114Mfg.Dental equipment and supplies mfgYesYes5.1%-1.4%5.2%2.9%4.3%3.8%4.3%20 of 20100%1.2
339115Mfg.Ophthalmic goods mfgYesYes5.5%2.8%1.5%3.2%2.5%1.6%1.7%17 of 2085%3.3
339900Mfg.Other miscellaneous mfg.YesYes13.2%8.7%2.1%7.9%6.3%3.4%2.8%18 of 2090%4.7
339910Mfg.Jewelry and silverware mfgYesYes9.2%2.0%6.7%5.9%4.2%1.6%3.5%15 of 2075%2.6
339920Mfg.Sporting and athletic goods mfgYesYes18.6%15.1%-0.7%10.7%7.7%4.0%2.4%14 of 2070%7.9
339930Mfg.Doll, toy, and game mfgYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%4.1%2.7%1.8%1.8%17 of 2085%2.5
339940Mfg.Office supplies, except paper, mfgYesYes24.7%10.8%0.6%11.6%8.4%4.7%3.4%17 of 2085%7.3
339950Mfg.Sign mfgYesYes16.4%7.8%0.7%8.1%5.8%3.6%2.3%17 of 2085%7.1
339991Mfg.Gasket, packing, and sealing device mfgYesYes9.1%6.7%1.7%5.8%4.0%2.5%2.5%19 of 2095%3.7
339992Mfg.Musical instrument mfgYesYes6.4%7.5%1.1%5.0%3.7%3.0%2.4%18 of 2090%2.7
339993Mfg.Fastener, button, needle, and pin mfgYesYes6.7%12.6%0.6%6.5%4.2%3.0%3.6%18 of 2090%1.8
339994Mfg.Broom, brush, and mop mfgYesYes6.7%6.3%0.4%4.5%4.3%2.8%2.5%20 of 20100%2.7
339995Mfg.Burial casket mfgYesYes6.7%11.0%-0.5%5.6%5.2%4.1%4.6%19 of 2095%1.4
339999Mfg.All other miscellaneous mfgYesYes16.0%11.9%1.4%9.6%8.0%4.4%2.9%16 of 2080%5.6
423100WholesaleMotor vehicle and parts merchant wholesalersYesYes4.8%4.6%0.7%3.3%2.2%1.6%1.3%17 of 2085%3.5
423200WholesaleFurniture & home furnishingYesYes7.5%13.3%0.9%7.1%5.2%3.3%2.8%19 of 2095%2.7
423300WholesaleLumber & other construction materialsYesNo-3.5%16.4%16.1%9.3%5.5%4.1%2.9%13 of 2065%-1.2
423400WholesaleProfessional & commercial equipment & suppliesYesYes9.1%7.1%1.0%5.7%4.2%2.4%1.6%16 of 2080%5.5
423500WholesaleMetal and mineral (except petroleum) merchant wholesalersYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
423600WholesaleHousehold appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalersYesYes8.3%8.3%1.9%6.1%5.1%2.3%1.8%13 of 2065%4.6
423700WholesaleHardware, plumbing, and heating equipment and supplies merchant wholesalersYesYes5.0%17.5%1.8%7.9%5.6%3.3%3.0%18 of 2090%1.7
423800WholesaleMachinery and supply merchant wholesalersYesYes9.1%7.1%1.0%5.7%4.2%2.4%1.6%16 of 2080%5.5
423900WholesaleMiscellaneous durable goods, except recyclable material, merchant wholesalersYesYes9.1%7.1%1.0%5.7%4.2%2.4%1.6%16 of 2080%5.5
423910WholesaleSporting & recreational goods & suppliesYesYes18.6%15.1%-0.7%10.7%7.7%4.0%2.4%14 of 2070%7.9
423920WholesaleToy & hobby goods & suppliesYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%4.1%2.7%1.8%1.8%17 of 2085%2.5
423930WholesaleRecyclable materialsYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
423940WholesaleJewelry, watch, precious stone & precious metalsYesYes9.2%2.0%6.7%5.9%4.2%1.6%3.5%15 of 2075%2.6
423990WholesaleOther miscellaneous durable goodsYesYesTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD
424100WholesalePaper and paper product merchant wholesalersYesYes8.7%18.6%1.6%9.4%5.3%3.1%3.2%15 of 2075%2.7
424200WholesaleDrugs and druggists’ sundries merchant wholesalersYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%2.4%5.0%5.1%20 of 20100%0.4
424210WholesaleDrugs & druggists’ sundriesYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%2.4%5.0%5.1%20 of 20100%0.4
424300WholesaleApparel and piece goods merchant wholesalersYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
424400WholesaleGrocery and related product merchant wholesalersYesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
424500WholesaleFarm product raw material merchant wholesalersYesYes23.2%23.9%3.1%16.3%10.1%2.6%4.9%14 of 2070%4.7
424600WholesaleChemicals and allied products merchant wholesalersYesNo2.2%22.9%0.7%8.1%4.5%2.7%4.3%17 of 2085%0.5
424700WholesalePetroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalersYesYes10.2%57.4%-15.3%13.7%8.2%0.1%6.5%13 of 2065%1.6
424800WholesaleBeer, wine, and distilled alcoholic beverage merchant wholesalersYesYes6.3%-0.4%1.9%2.6%1.9%1.3%1.9%18 of 2090%3.3
424900WholesaleMiscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalersYesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%9.7%6.1%3.3%3.6%17 of 2085%2.3
424920WholesaleBooks, periodicals & newspapersYesYes14.3%9.5%1.5%8.3%5.9%3.1%2.9%16 of 2080%4.8
424930WholesaleFlower, nursery stock & florists’ suppliesYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%9.2%12.7%6.4%4.1%19 of 2095%5.0
424940WholesaleTobacco & tobacco productsYesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%8.4%7.4%6.1%4.7%18 of 2090%2.4
424950WholesalePaint, varnish & suppliesYesYes20.4%13.9%1.4%11.6%8.6%3.9%4.5%17 of 2085%4.5
424990WholesaleOther miscellaneous nondurable goodsYesYesTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD
425120WholesaleWholesale trade agents and brokersYesYes16.0%11.9%1.4%9.6%8.0%4.4%2.9%16 of 2080%5.6
429930WholesaleMaterial recyclersYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%12.5%7.9%3.6%4.5%13 of 2065%-1.5
441110RetailNew car dealersYesYes6.8%3.5%-0.2%3.3%2.1%2.0%1.4%15 of 2075%4.7
441120RetailUsed car dealersYesYes6.8%3.5%-0.2%3.3%2.1%2.0%1.4%15 of 2075%4.7
441210RetailRecreational vehicle dealers (including motor home & travel trailer dealers)YesYes7.9%21.7%3.9%10.9%7.7%5.2%3.9%19 of 2095%2.0
441222RetailBoat dealersYesYes11.4%7.7%2.5%7.2%5.8%4.0%3.3%20 of 20100%3.4
441228RetailMotorcycle, ATV & all other motor vehicle dealersYesYes2.8%0.0%-0.1%0.9%0.8%1.5%0.7%17 of 2085%3.9
441300RetailAutomotive parts, accessories & tire storesYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
441310RetailAutomotive parts and accessories storesYesYes3.7%5.3%0.8%3.2%2.1%1.1%1.1%15 of 2075%3.4
441320RetailTire dealersYesYes15.3%8.1%0.3%7.7%4.9%1.9%3.5%15 of 2075%4.3
442110RetailFurniture storesYesYes7.5%13.3%0.9%7.1%5.2%3.3%2.8%19 of 2095%2.7
442200RetailHome furnishings storesYesYes8.4%10.9%1.6%6.9%5.3%3.1%2.5%20 of 20100%3.4
442210RetailFloor covering storesYesNo0.8%7.4%0.3%2.8%2.5%1.9%2.6%16 of 2080%0.3
443100RetailElectronics and appliance storesYesYes8.4%10.9%1.6%6.9%5.3%3.1%2.5%20 of 20100%3.4
443141RetailHousehold appliance storesYesYes8.3%8.3%1.9%6.1%5.1%2.3%1.8%13 of 2065%4.6
443142RetailElectronics stores (including audio, video, computer & camera stores)NoNo6.9%8.8%0.8%5.5%3.7%1.7%-0.5%9 of 2045%-13.4
444100RetailBuilding materials and supplies dealersYesNo-3.5%16.4%16.1%9.3%5.5%4.1%2.9%13 of 2065%-1.2
444120RetailPaint & wallpaper storesYesYes20.4%13.9%1.4%11.6%8.6%3.9%4.5%17 of 2085%4.5
444130RetailHardware storesYesYes5.0%17.5%1.8%7.9%5.6%3.3%3.0%18 of 2090%1.7
444190RetailOther building materials dealersYesNo-11.7%13.6%60.7%17.2%7.9%4.7%4.8%11 of 2055%-2.4
444200RetailLawn & garden equipment & supplies storesYesYes11.7%5.3%0.7%5.8%4.3%2.3%1.5%15 of 2075%8.0
444220RetailNursery, garden, and farm supply storesYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%9.2%12.7%6.4%4.1%19 of 2095%5.0
445100RetailGrocery stores (including supermarkets & convenience stores without gas)YesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
445110RetailSupermarkets and other grocery storesYesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
445200RetailSpecialty food storesYesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
445210RetailMeat marketsYesNo-3.3%20.0%2.7%6.0%4.4%2.1%3.2%14 of 2070%-1.0
445220RetailFish & seafood marketsYesNo-12.0%36.3%-0.5%6.1%5.1%4.4%4.3%13 of 2065%-2.8
445230RetailFruit & vegetable marketsYesYes43.0%9.4%-4.5%14.3%10.2%7.5%6.2%14 of 2070%7.0
445290RetailOther specialty food storesYesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
445310RetailBeer, wine, and liquor storesYesYes6.3%-0.4%1.9%2.6%1.9%1.3%1.9%18 of 2090%3.3
446110RetailPharmacies and drug storesYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%2.4%5.0%5.1%20 of 20100%0.4
446120RetailCosmetics, beauty supplies & perfume storesYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%2.6%2.2%1.7%1.3%17 of 2085%4.8
446130RetailOptical goods storesYesYes5.5%2.8%1.5%3.2%2.5%1.6%1.7%17 of 2085%3.3
446190RetailOther health & personal care storesYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%2.6%2.2%1.7%1.3%17 of 2085%4.8
446191RetailFood (health) supplement storesYesYes5.3%1.3%0.1%2.2%1.7%2.1%2.0%19 of 2095%2.7
447100RetailGasoline stations (including convenience stores with gas)YesNo-5.5%67.0%-23.1%6.6%3.8%-2.2%5.0%12 of 2060%-1.1
448100RetailClothing storesYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
448110RetailMen’s clothing storesYesYes11.9%2.1%0.6%4.7%3.4%1.7%1.1%15 of 2075%10.8
448120RetailWomen’s clothing storesYesNo0.4%4.2%-4.7%-0.1%0.0%0.3%1.1%15 of 2075%0.4
448130RetailChildren’s & infants’ clothing storesYesYes11.9%2.1%0.6%4.7%3.4%1.7%1.1%15 of 2075%10.8
448140RetailFamily clothing storesYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
448150RetailClothing accessories storesYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
448190RetailOther clothing storesYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
448210RetailShoe storesYesYes3.3%3.1%1.1%2.5%1.6%0.9%1.0%15 of 2075%3.2
448310RetailJewelry storesYesYes9.2%2.0%6.7%5.9%4.2%1.6%3.5%15 of 2075%2.6
448320RetailLuggage & leather goods storesYesYes4.2%3.0%1.1%2.8%2.3%2.3%1.8%20 of 20100%2.3
451110RetailSporting goods storesYesYes18.6%15.1%-0.7%10.7%7.7%4.0%2.4%14 of 2070%7.9
451120RetailHobby, toy & game storesYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%4.1%2.7%1.8%1.8%17 of 2085%2.5
451130RetailSewing, needlework & piece goods storesYesYes6.7%12.6%0.6%6.5%4.2%3.0%3.5%18 of 2090%1.9
451140RetailMusical instrument & supplies storesYesYes6.4%7.5%1.1%5.0%3.7%3.0%2.4%18 of 2090%2.7
451211RetailBook storesYesYes23.9%11.8%2.2%12.3%8.4%4.7%2.9%16 of 2080%8.1
451212RetailNews dealers & newsstandsYesYes14.3%9.5%1.5%8.3%5.9%3.1%2.9%16 of 2080%4.8
452210RetailDepartment storesYesYes4.9%3.9%-1.8%2.3%1.7%1.2%1.1%15 of 2075%4.4
452310RetailOther general merchandise storesYesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%9.7%6.1%3.3%3.6%17 of 2085%2.3
453110RetailFloristsYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%9.2%12.7%6.4%4.1%19 of 2095%5.0
453200RetailOffice supplies, stationery, and gift storesYesYes24.7%10.8%0.6%11.6%8.4%4.7%3.4%17 of 2085%7.3
453210RetailOffice supplies & stationery storesYesYes24.7%10.8%0.6%11.6%8.4%4.7%3.4%17 of 2085%7.3
453220RetailGift, novelty & souvenir storesYesYes16.0%11.9%1.4%9.6%8.0%4.4%2.9%16 of 2080%5.6
453310RetailUsed merchandise storesYesYes16.0%11.9%1.4%9.6%8.0%4.4%2.9%16 of 2080%5.6
453910RetailPet & pet supplies storesYesYes14.1%7.6%0.7%7.3%5.7%3.3%3.9%19 of 2095%3.6
453920RetailArt dealersYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%9.2%12.7%6.4%4.1%19 of 2095%5.0
453930RetailManufactured (mobile) home dealersYesYes7.0%30.1%8.6%14.8%10.8%7.0%5.6%20 of 20100%1.3
453990RetailAll other miscellaneous store retailers (including tobacco, candle & trophy shops)TBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD
454110RetailElectronic shopping and mail-order housesYesYes16.0%11.9%1.4%9.6%8.0%4.4%2.9%16 of 2080%5.6
454210RetailVending machine operatorsYesYes9.7%10.4%2.0%7.3%5.0%2.2%3.2%17 of 2085%3.0
454310RetailFuel dealersYesNo-5.5%67.0%-23.1%6.6%3.8%-2.2%5.0%12 of 2060%-1.1
454390RetailOther direct selling establishmentsTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD
  • 2022 inflation will likely be well or far above historical averages in many industries, which will create some of the best LIFO tax deferral/savings opportunities seen in 4-5 decades.
  • When compared to a normal inflation period, many years worth of LIFO tax benefits can be obtained in a single year by electing in 2022
  • One of the best possible times to elect LIFO is in a year with above-average or record high inflation because it greatly increases the probability of the year one LIFO reserve being much larger than the sum of any future LIFO recapture (taxable income) that could potentially be created during deflationary periods. See example below.
  • Election Requirements
    • LIFO Conformity Rule: Must value inventory using LIFO on financial statements beginning with the same period LIFO is elected & reported on the tax return. Amount initially reported on financial statement DOES NOT NEED TO BE THE FINAL figure & CAN BE AN ESTIMATED FIGURE CALCULATED PRIOR TO YEAR END (although financial statements must show inventory & income reported under LIFO, disclosures can be made in notes to financial statements to present amounts such as ending inventory and income using non-LIFO method for comparative purposes)
    • Election scope or the goods to be valued under LIFO for tax purposes can not be greater than inventories valued under LIFO for financial reporting (can have more goods on LIFO for book than for tax, but not vice versa)
    • Must take NON-LIFO reserves into income over 4-year period beginning with year of election. Examples include:
      • Lower of cost or market reserve
      • Slow-moving/obsolete reserve
      • Arbitrary write-downs other than shrink
    • Must stay on LIFO for five years prior to being allowed to automatically terminate election (must pay $12K users fee & complete change prior to year end if terminating LIFO election less than five years before original year of adoption)
  • Disclaimers
    • Portions or all of LIFO reserve may be taken back into income if the following occurs:
      • Portion of LIFO reserve may be taken back into income in periods where one or both of the following occurs:
        • Deflation
        • Material inventory liquidations (for example, a 50% decrease in the current vs. prior year’s ending inventory balance at cost)
      • All of LIFO reserve will be taken back into income over 4 years when either of the following occurs:
        • C to S Corp conversions
        • Business asset sales
  • Switch to IPIC method (using Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer/Producer Price Index)
    • Tax deferral maximization: Often creates more inflation than actual internal product costs or internal index inflation for the following reasons:
      • BLS PPI inflation will be greater than internal index inflation on goods that were imported or purchased for resale products sourced from abroad because BLS PPI only measures U.S. or domestic production & domestically produced goods inflation rates have historically been materially higher than imported goods
      • When the IPIC method is used, new items are given preexisting item inflation since BLS only measures price changes on preexisting items (or they reconstruct the cost on any newly-introduced item). With internal indexes, new items’ prior year costs are often set to equal to its current year cost since reconstruction is often burdensome/subjective & IRS Regs. prohibit new items from being excluded from the inflation calculation. As a result, during periods of inflation, new items will reduce the overall current year inflation rate when internal indexes are used. This becomes more pronounced when there’s high item turnover and/or high inflation.
    • Much quicker, simpler means of performing interim estimates than internal indexes
    • Minimize IRS scrutiny upon audit or reduce audit risk
      • IPIC method is IRS safe harbor method, which affords taxpayers less scrutiny from IRS upon audit compared to taxpayers using internal indexes since inflation calculation relies on external government indexes & internal indexes rely on the taxpayer’s accounting records/systems
      • Switch to IPIC method from internal indexes to IPIC method provides audit protection from prior period calculation errors
      • Can also provide a safe harbor for companies with LIFO books & records audit risk. See IRS LIFO Records Practice Unit
    • Simplify LIFO calculation & reduce volatility
      • IPIC method can simplify inflation calculation for manufacturers because:
        • Reduces reliance on accounting information systems & appropriate allocation of item cost components such as materials, labor & overhead since inflation is measured using BLS PPI, not current & prior/base period item/unit costs
        • Inflation for WIP inventories are calculated by assigning the applicable finished goods PPI code to the WIP items
        • New item cost reconstruction is not applicable since the same BLS categories/inflation indexes are used for preexisting & new items
        • IPIC method can reduce volatility because BLS surveys thousands of producers & eliminates extreme cost fluctuations that could occur within any single company
    • Automatic approval to change to IPIC method & is applied on a cutoff basis
      • Affords audit protection from LIFO reserve overstatements since change is applied beginning in year of change & built from pre-change LIFO reserve
      • Only means of automatically changing from double-extension to link-chain (double-extension = current vs. base year cost comparison; link-chain = current vs. prior year cost comparison; advanced approval change to switch from double-extension to link-chain internal index)
  Learn more about the IPIC method here: IPIC LIFO Advantages
  • Methods Alternatives Comparison
    • Alternative LIFO method (ALM): Measures inflation based on comparing current & prior period’s invoice costs; Item definition is specific to each vehicle/VIN, meaning inflation must be calculated for each vehicle, not just by make or type (car, truck, SUV)
      • Pros
        • Historically created more inflation & tax deferral than IPIC method until 2020
        • IRS safe harbor method & used by many auto dealers since its inception
      • Cons
        • Inflation calculation is materially more burdensome than IPIC since invoice costs must be compared on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis
        • Interim estimates take more time than IPIC method since inflation is measured by invoice cost
        • Year end calculations require more turnaround time since inflation data typically isn’t available until after year end
        • Typically materially higher outsourcing costs than IPIC method
    • IPIC method: Measures inflation by using Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer/Producer Price Indexes (BLS CPI/PPI); Item definition are the BLS categories, which is New cars, New trucks, SUVs & minivans, Used vehicles & Parts
      • Pros
        • Inflation calculation is materially less burdensome since inventory breakdowns by 3 – 5 BLS categories are used, which precludes the need to utilize invoice costs to calculate inflation
        • IRS safe harbor method & has grown exponentially in popularity over the last three years
        • Interim estimates can be easily performed on demand since they can be made using the most recent BLS index release
        • Year end calculations can be completed more quickly than ALM calculations since an appropriate month other than the year end month can be used to complete inflation calculation (i.e. November PPI can be used for December year end)
        • Typically materially lower outsourcing costs than ALM
      • Cons
        • Prior to pandemic, creased less inflation & tax deferral than ALM
  • Opportunities & Strategies for Dealers on LIFO:
    • Depending on ALM inflation, switch to IPIC method from ALM could create materially higher tax benefits on new vehicles, especially for imported vehicles
    • Tax benefits could be maximized by expanding LIFO election scope to include used vehicles and/or parts and switching to IPIC method
  • Opportunities & Strategies for Dealers not on LIFO:
    • Many years worth of LIFO tax deferral can be obtained in election year by adopting in 2022 with inflation being at or near record highs, and election can be made using the lowest administrative burden & outsourcing costs
    • Tax benefits from LIFO can be maximized by including used vehicles and/or parts in election scope
  • Opportunities & Strategies for All dealers
    • If switching to IPIC method & only new vehicles are to be included in election scope, CPI should be used since the inflation for new vehicles is higher than PPI
    • If electing LIFO or switching to IPIC method and including used vehicles and/or parts in election scope, CPI or PPI could be used depending on the appropriate months selected and proportion of new vs. used vehicles inventories & cars vs. SUVs/Trucks/minivans/crossovers balances
  • Quick LIFO Expense Formula Analysis for incorporating IPIC method estimate into P12 financial statements:
    • Input 1: Estimated prior year inventory balance at cost for all goods to be included in LIFO election scope for 2022 year end
    • Input 2: Estimated current year CPI/PPI inflation rate for all goods to be included in LIFO election scope for 2022 year end
  • IPIC LIFO expense calculation example for P12 financial statement estimate:
    • 2021 year end inventory balance at cost for new vehicles, used vehicles & parts: $10M
    • 2022 year end estimated CPI/PPI inflation for all goods: 7%
    • 2022 year end IPIC LIFO expense for P12 financial statement estimate: $10M * 7% = $700K
  • LIFO value pricing method
    • Specific goods (“unit LIFO”): LIFO value of inventory is accounted for at the item level. Unit costs & the physical flow of goods are tracked on a LIFO basis within accounting system
    • Dollar-value: Under this method, the LIFO value is accounted for as a top-side adjustment rather than at the item level. Unit costs & the physical flow of goods are tracked at actual cost (FIFO, average cost or specific ID) or standard cost. Side computation made outside of accounting system to calculate inflation, layers (decrements), inventory @ LIFO, LIFO reserve & LIFO expense (income)
    • Best practice: Use dollar-value LIFO because it avoids many undesirable characteristics of LIFO & offers materially higher long-term tax benefits when compared to unit LIFO
  • LIFO index computation timeframe selection
    • Link-chain: Current quantities are extended against current & prior period item/unit costs to calculate current year inflation index (one year measurement period)
    • Double-extension: Current quantities are extended against current & base period unit costs to calculate current year cumulative index (all years on LIFO measurement period)
    • Best practice: Use Link-chain LIFO because it’s absent of the inherent flaws built into double-extension method & link-chain precludes the need to reconstruct base year costs for new items
  • Inflation measurement source
    • Internal indexes: Current year inflation index measured using actual costs paid/incurred to acquire/procure the goods
    • External indexes: aka Inventory Price Index Computation or IPIC method. Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer/Producer Price Indexes assigned to goods to calculate current year inflation index
    • Best practice: Common to use the method that’ll provide the most favorable tax position (inflation), but ultimately varies by industry, product mix & many other company-specific consideratioN
  • Current-year cost & layer valuation method
    • Latest acquisitions (FIFO), 12-month moving average or rolling-average cost (aka weighted average cost), Earliest acquisitions, specific ID or other method that’s clearly reflective of income
    • Best practice: For first-time elections, use the same method employed by accounting system to track item costs prior to electing LIFO to prevent wholesale changes to accounting system or IT burden associated with measuring multiple methods
  • Pooling method
    • Resellers (retailers & wholesalers/distributors): Line, type or class of goods
    • Manufacturers/producers
      • Natural business units (separate pool required for manufactured vs. purchased for resale goods)
      • Raw materials content
      • Multiple pools
    • IPIC LIFO method users
      • IPIC Pooling method: pools established for each BLS major group assigned 5% or more of the total inventory balance at cost
      • Any non-IPIC pooling method listed above that matches your industry type ( i.e., manufacturers using IPIC method could use natural business unit pooling method)
      • Best practice: Utilize the method expected to create/require the least amount of LIFO pools to minimize likelihood of LIFO recapture caused by inventory liquidations
  Learn more here: LIFO Methods, Rules & Regulations
  • Election Benefit Analysis (for companies not on LIFO, but considering adoption)
    • Thorough LIFO Due diligence should be considered essential
    • Failing to perform thorough LIFO due diligence can lead to the following:
      • Materially lower tax benefits being obtained in the long-term as a result of selecting suboptimal methods
      • Impermissible methods unknowingly being used & audit risk being created
      • Utilizing methods that are more error-prone or burdensome than simpler, less time-intensive alternatives
      • Higher likelihood of eventually terminating LIFO election due to lack of benefits and/or excessive administrative costs/resources
    • Outsourcing due diligence work to a LIFO subject matter expert ensures the following:
      • Historical inflation studied to predict long-term impact of LIFO to illustrate potential future benefits & risks
      • All method alternatives are considered & best practices are considered/employed
      • Best possible tax answer is achieved while ensuring compliance
      • Responsibilities & requirements incident to electing are clearly defined
  • Review (for companies already on LIFO)
    • The majority of calculations & methods we review either contain errors, have compliance issues or utilize suboptimal methods
    • Most compliance issues & suboptimal methods usage results from a lack of thorough due diligence being performed at the time of election
    • Very few firms have software to quickly automate LIFO calculations, confirm calculation accuracy & easily identify errors
    • No CPA firm other than LIFOPro works exclusively with LIFO 100% of the time, meaning that they’re unable to provide thorough due diligence
    • Obtaining a review from a LIFO subject matter expert ensures the following:
      • Calculation errors undetected for many years are identified & prevented from occurring in the future
      • Compliance issues & suboptimal methods usage are identified and best practices feedback & recommendations are provided
      • Strategies for reducing or eliminating IRS audit risk are provided
  • Companies not on LIFO: LIFO Election Benefit Analysis
    • Comprehensive LIFO election case study packaged in the form of a PDF report containing the following:
      • Election year estimated tax LIFO benefits, including comparisons between internal vs. external inflation measurement source
      • 20 year pro forma IPIC LIFO calculation using Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer/Producer Price Indexes to determine inflation frequency, long-term historical average annual inflation rate & whether a company is a good LIFO candidate
      • Election recommendations including which submethods should be used
      • How LIFO Works appendix covering all the essentials
      • LIFOPro also provides turnkey outsourcing solution fee quote showing election year & recurring costs
      • Sample LIFO Election Benefit Analysis Report
  • Companies on LIFO: Calculation, Methods & Best Practices Review
    • Comprehensive calculation review & guide packaged in the form of a PDF report containing the following:
      • Calculation review
      • Methods review
      • Best practices feedback, including:
        • Optimization strategies & tax deferral maximization opportunities
        • Errors & IRS audit risk areas identified
        • Strategies for reducing IRS audit risk and/or obtaining audit protection
      • Recommendations & implementation steps provided for applying recommended changes
      • Same LIFOPro report package provided to outsourcing clients & fee quote also provided in addition to review report
      • Companies can also receive complimentary LIFOPro software trial
      • Sample LIFO Calculation, Methods & Best Practices Review Report
  • In-house calculations made WITHOUT software
    • Inflation calculation can be very complex when performed in spreadsheets
    • Important steps may be overlooked or left out altogether when manually performed in-house, such as:
      • Using too few BLS categories increases IRS audit risk & using the wrong BLS categories causes distorted inflation calculation
      • Using 10% method BLS category assignment approach where less-detailed BLS categories are used, but using a non 10% category inflation index approach (impermissible per IRS Regs.)
      • Uniform BLS category assignment to new items to ensure the same BLS indexes are applied to similar new vs. preexisting items
      • Including new items in calculation ensure compliance or reconstructing new item cost to avoid inflation dilution that’d otherwise occur
      • Performing inflation calculation reasonableness testing, setting criteria for identifying inflation outliers & establishing standard procedures for handling outliers
    • Calculating layers & decrements can be complex because it’s unknown whether there’ll be an increment or decrement in any given year & different math steps are required to calculate an increment vs. decrement(s)
    • Calculation errors become more inevitable the longer you’ve been on LIFO as decades worth of LIFO layers accumulate
  • Outsourced calculations or those made in-house WITH software
    • Make being on LIFO as simple as possible with outsourcing & minimize time spent on LIFO in-house with software
    • Reduces control & detection risk since all aspects of the calculation is automated using LIFOPro software
    • Simplifies audit procedures by providing comprehensive, user-friendly documentation
    • CPA firms & companies can rely on LIFOPro to serve as their LIFO subject matter expert rather than having to develop & maintain in-house expertise
    • Guarantee calculation accuracy & eliminate IRS audit risk
    • Easily obtain interim estimates to focus on forecasting & planning
    • Avoid getting bogged down with compliance work & getting hit with big LIFO surprises at year end
  • All of LIFOPro’s offerings come with the assurance of a SOC 1 Type II Report
  • Features
    • All tasks related to LIFO calculation & documentation outsourced to & managed by LIFOPro, including:
      • BLS category assignments (if applicable)
      • Inflation calculation, including new item cost reconstruction, exceptions & outlier analysis
      • LIFO reserve calculation
      • LIFO calculation documentation & storage
      • LIFOPro report package preparation
    • All clients receive LIFOPro report package electronically containing comprehensive calculation documentation, including summary amounts required to record LIFO-related accounting entries & tax return line items
    • Clients using external indexes (IPIC method) receive up to three interim estimates at no additional cost (using prior year product mix & year to date BLS inflation rates)
    • Flexible engagement structures to include supplemental services
    • Includes up to 40 hours of audit support
  • Benefits
    • Make being on LIFO as simple as possible
    • Simplifies audit procedures for companies & auditors by providing them with comprehensive, standardized documentation
    • Increase transparency & understandability by converting many years worth of files & documentation into a single user-friendly LIFO report package containing comprehensive documentation
    • Eliminate error-prone Excel spreadsheets, guarantee calculation accuracy & eliminate audit risk
    • Free up time to focus on LIFO forecasting & planning by eliminating time spent preparing/documenting calculation
  • Features
    • Complete LIFO calculation & documentation automation for all dollar-value methodologies (excluding auto dealer alternative LIFO method inflation calculations; auto dealer IPIC LIFO inflation calculation is supported)
    • Automates all aspects of the LIFO calculation (excluding BLS category assignments), including:
      • Inflation calculation, including new item cost reconstruction, exceptions & outlier analysis
      • LIFO reserve calculation
      • LIFO calculation documentation & storage
      • Printing and/or saving all LIFOPro reports as PDF or Excel files
    • Separate stand-alone inflation calculation modules for internal & external (IPIC) indexes & both include a complete range of features & settings
    • Projections module provides on-demand, unlimited array of next year’s LIFO expense (income) figures
  • Benefits
    • Benefits for companies & CPA firms alike include:
      • Minimize time spent managing LIFO in-house
      • Guarantee calculation accuracy & eliminate errors
      • Replace error-prone spreadsheet formulas & Excel schedules with comprehensive, user-friendly reports
      • Ensure LIFO books & records are IRS Regs. compliant & minimize audit risk
      • Simplify calculation policies/procedures & reporting
      • Increase reporting transparency & understandability
      • Easily & quickly make interim estimates & ad-hoc projections
    • Additional benefits for CPA firms include:
      • Quickly perform LIFO benefit analysis for clients who are good candidates
      • Quickly confirm/verify LIFO calculation accuracy for audit/review clients
      • Create a highly profitable recurring revenue center by using the software to do all the LIFO heavy lifting & providing LIFO outsourcing services to clients
  • LIFO tax benefits are primarily driven by inflation & with well above average or record high inflation, 2022 will be one of the best periods to elect LIFO in the last four decades
  • CPA firms should be proactive with identifying good election candidates & advocating for their clients to explore adopting LIFO
  • Due diligence should be performed prior to electing LIFO to ensure compliance & maximize tax benefits
  • LIFO reviews should be periodically performed for companies already on LIFO for the following reasons
    • Identify errors & compliance issues
    • Quantify potential audit exposure and learn how certain changes can reduce/eliminate audit risk
    • Identify opportunities to utilize more optimal methods
  • LIFOPro’s resources provide CPA firms with all their LIFO needs
    • Firms can advocate for the use of LIFO without having to develop in-house expertise and resources required to accommodate their clients LIFO needs
    • Firms can streamline identifying the top election candidates using our resources
    • Firms can rely on LIFOPro to provide LIFO training to their clients and firm
  • LIFOPro’s offerings provide companies with all their LIFO needs
    • Companies can make being on LIFO as simple as possible with LIFOPro’s turnkey outsourcing solutions
    • Companies can minimize time spent in-house on LIFO & guarantee accuracy with the LIFOPro software
  • Companies not on LIFO:
  • Companies on LIFO:
    • Obtain a complimentary LIFO Review, fee quote(s), sample LIFOPro report package or software trial
    • Schedule complimentary LIFO discovery call to learn more about your client’s LIFO situation, wants/needs & LIFOPro’s offerings: Schedule LIFO Discovery Call
  • Documentation requirements
    • LIFO Election Benefit Analysis & fee quote (for clients not on LIFO)
      • Current & prior period’s item detail reports (Also known as stock status or perpetual inventory valuation report)
      • Combined federal & state tax rate (optional; tax savings will be shown using range of tax rates if this is not provided)
      • LIFO Benefit Analysis Document Request List
    • LIFO Review, fee quote, sample LIFOPro report package or software trial (for clients on LIFO)
      • LIFO layer history/carryforward schedule from last two periods closed
      • Inflation index calculation documentation from the last period closed
      • Product hierarchies (if applicable; for pro forma IPIC method calculation)
      • LIFO calculation policies & procedures documentation (if available)
      • LIFO Review Document Request List
  • Document delivery options
LIFOPro will email analysis/review report, fee quote & other complimentary resources within 1 week of receipt of above documents. LIFOPro will expedite any analysis/review to accommodate incorporating LIFO estimate into financial statements or quick close.