Bob Richardson

  • Tax Benefits
    • LIFO often creates material long-term tax deferral/savings: Not just a one-time tax benefit or timing difference between book & tax such as straight-line vs. accelerated depreciation
    • During periods of rising costs, LIFO:
      • Provides more after-tax free cash flow than non-LIFO methods when there’s inflation
      • Ensures taxes aren’t paid on goods that have been purchased, but have yet to be sold
      • Improves ability to replenish & maintain an adequate level of inventory
    • Some consider LIFO to act as a tax deferral tool that can be thought of as an interest-free loan, while others believe LIFO essentially acts as a permanent form of tax savings if a company is profitable, satisfies the going concern assumption & intends to stay on LIFO
    • Tax Court opinion regarding LIFO (see Amity Leather vs. Commissioner):
The theory behind LIFO is that income may be more accurately determined by matching current costs against current revenues, thereby eliminating from earnings any artificial profits resulting from inflationary increases in inventory costs. At the heart of the LIFO method is the principle that income is more clearly reflected by matching current costs with current revenues.
  • GAAP accounting method
    • LIFO is an accounting method permissible under GAAP, not just a tax incentive
    • During periods of rising costs, income is most clearly reflected by matching current costs with current revenues
    • Provides a more conservative measure of income compared to non-LIFO methods during periods of rising costs

LIFO LIFO Cost/Benefit Case Study: Building Products Manufacturer

  • Company Overview
    • Years on LIFO: 6 (2017 = 1st year on LIFO)
    • 2022 y/e inventory balance @ Cost: $15M
    • 2022 y/e inventory balance @ LIFO: $12.1M
    • Combined federal + state tax rate: 30%
    • Interest rate on debt: 6%
    • 2022 y/e LIFO reserve: $2.9M
  • Benefits
    • Cumulative after-tax savings:
    • 2022 y/e LIFO reserve * tax rate = $2.9M * 30% = $860K
    • Savings on interest expense: Cumulative after-tax savings * interest rate on debt = $860K * 6% = $52K
  • Costs
    • First year fee including IRS forms prep (2017): $5K
    • Recurring annual outsourcing fee: $2,500 (years 2 – 6)
    • Cumulative outsourcing costs: $17,500
    • Cost as a percentage of after-tax savings: $17,500 ÷ $860K = 2%
  • Misconception #1: The following burdens & costs outweigh the benefits of LIFO:
    • Management, cost accounting & purchasing/sales functions & responsibilities will be complicated by using LIFO
    • Wholesale changes must be made to accounting system since item costs & the physical flow of goods must be tracked on a LIFO basis
    • Clarifications
      • Under the dollar-value method, the LIFO value of inventory is determined outside of the accounting system & a top-side accounting entry is recorded to adjust ending inventory from cost to LIFO & accrue the change in the LIFO reserve
      • Under dollar-value LIFO, item costs remain being tracked the same way they did prior to electing LIFO & requires no changes to the accounting system other than adding a contra-inventory subledger account called the LIFO reserve
  • Misconception #2
    • Employee compensation & bonuses will be complicated from using LIFO
    • Clarification: Internal management reports can be presented on a non-LIFO basis as long as they’re only being used internally
  • Misconception #3: Tax savings from LIFO will be minimal because of:
    • High inventory turnover or new item rates
    • Just in time inventory or lean accounting practices
    • Clarifications
      • Under the dollar-value method, the inflation rate used to calculate the LIFO reserve change is based on a 12 month comparison of current vs. prior year’s item/unit costs extended by quantities on hand in ending inventory regardless of the turnover ratio
      • External indexes reconstruct inflation on new items, which ensures the same amount of inflation is applied to new & preexisting items
      • Manufacturers will always have raw materials & WIP; wholesalers/distributors & retailers still must maintain adequate base stock
  • Misconception #4: Internal costs must be used to measure LIFO inflation
    • Clarification: External indexes such as the BLS CPI/PPI can be used to measure inflation, thereby minimizing reliance on accounting information systems
  • Misconception #5: LIFO reserve change misconceptions:
    • Material LIFO reserve recaptures can occur from normal current vs. prior year inventory balance decreases
    • LIFO reserve can’t increase if the current vs. prior period’s inventory balance decreases
    • Clarifications
      • In most cases, material LIFO recapture only occurs when there is either substantial deflation and/or substantial inventory liquidations
      • When there’s inflation, LIFO reserve can increase even when current vs. prior year inventory balances decrease


Inflation Calculation

Layer Calculations

LIFO Reserve & Expense (Income) Calculation

  • LIFO Reserve: Equals the difference between inventory at cost (FIFO or average cost) & inventory at LIFO
  • LIFO Expense (Income):
    • Equals the current vs. prior year LIFO reserve change
    • Increase in current vs. prior year LIFO reserve change = LIFO expense (reduction to income & increase to COGS)
    • Decrease in current vs. prior year LIFO reserve change = LIFO income (increase to income & decrease to COGS)
  • LIFO Reserve Change Components
    • LIFO reserve change will consist of 1 or both of the following two components:
      • Inflation effect LIFO expense (income): Current year inflation rate * prior year inventory balance at cost
      • Layer erosion effect LIFO income: Current year decrease at base year costs * (Current year cumulative index – the average cumulative index of the layers eroded)
    • In most cases, the layer erosion effect LIFO income will create LIFO recapture, but if there was deflation in the prior year & also in the current year, layer erosions can create LIFO expense (LIFO reserve increase)
    • Determining factor on whether one or both of the above will components will be used is dependent on whether an increment or decrement was created. If an increment was created, the LIFO reserve change will only consist of the inflation effect LIFO expense (income). If decrement(s) created, the LIFO reserve change will be the sum of the inflation effect LIFO expense (income) & layer erosion LIFO income. In other words, the layer erosion LIFO income only occurs when a decrement was created.
    • You can project in advance if there will be an increment or decrement for the upcoming year end by taking the product of the current year’s expected inflation rate & last year’s inventory balance at cost (LIFOPro calls this amount the “zero layer erosion Current Year Cost”) and comparing that amount to the projected year end inventory balance at cost. If the projected year end inventory balance at cost is higher than the zero layer erosion Current Year Cost, there will be an increment, but if it’s lower, there will be a decrement.
    • In the absence of a complete LIFO calculation becoming available, an easy way to perform a quick LIFO estimate or apply reasonableness testing to the results of your LIFO calculation would be to use the inflation effect LIFO expense (income) formula listed above
  • LIFO value pricing method
    • Specific goods (“unit LIFO”): LIFO value of inventory is accounted for at the item level. Unit costs & the physical flow of goods are tracked on a LIFO basis within accounting system
    • Dollar-value: Under this method, the LIFO value is accounted for as a top-side adjustment rather than at the item level. Unit costs & the physical flow of goods are tracked at actual cost (FIFO, average cost or specific ID) or standard cost. Side computation made outside of accounting system to calculate inflation, layers (decrements), inventory @ LIFO, LIFO reserve & LIFO expense (income)
    • Best practice: Use dollar-value LIFO because it avoids many undesirable characteristics of LIFO & offers materially higher long-term tax benefits when compared to unit LIFO
  • LIFO index computation timeframe selection
    • Link-chain: Current quantities are extended against current & prior period item/unit costs to calculate current year inflation index (one year measurement period)
    • Double-extension: Current quantities are extended against current & base period unit costs to calculate current year cumulative index (all years on LIFO measurement period)
    • Best practice: Use Link-chain LIFO because it’s absent of the inherent flaws built into double-extension method & link-chain precludes the need to reconstruct base year costs for new items
  • Inflation measurement source
    • Internal indexes: Current year inflation index measured using actual costs paid/incurred to acquire/procure the goods
    • External indexes: aka Inventory Price Index Computation or IPIC method. Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer/Producer Price Indexes assigned to goods to calculate current year inflation index
    • Best practice: Common to use the method that’ll provide the most favorable tax position (inflation), but ultimately varies by industry, product mix & many other company-specific consideratioN
  • Current-year cost & layer valuation method
    • Latest acquisitions (FIFO), 12-month moving average or rolling-average cost (aka weighted average cost), Earliest acquisitions, specific ID or other method that’s clearly reflective of income
    • Best practice: For first-time elections, use the same method employed by accounting system to track item costs prior to electing LIFO to prevent wholesale changes to accounting system or IT burden associated with measuring multiple methods
  • Pooling method
    • Resellers (retailers & wholesalers/distributors): Line, type or class of goods
    • Manufacturers/producers
      • Natural business units (separate pool required for manufactured vs. purchased for resale goods)
      • Raw materials content
      • Multiple pools
    • IPIC LIFO method users
      • IPIC Pooling method: pools established for each BLS major group assigned 5% or more of the total inventory balance at cost
      • Any non-IPIC pooling method listed above that matches your industry type ( i.e., manufacturers using IPIC method could use natural business unit pooling method)
      • Best practice: Utilize the method expected to create/require the least amount of LIFO pools to minimize likelihood of LIFO recapture caused by inventory liquidations
  Learn more here: LIFO Methods, Rules & Regulations
  • Good LIFO Candidate: LIFOPro has developed a proprietary scoring system to identify good candidates, which requires for the following criteria to be met:
    • High inflation frequency: Must have inflation in more than half of the last 20 years (11 or more). Best LIFO candidates have high inflation frequency because the more often inflation is expected to occur, the higher the likelihood that LIFO acts as annuity & the lower the likelihood of deflation/LIFO recapture
    • Historical Average Annual Inflation Rate of 1% or greater: Using 20 year average annual inflation rate (or 3/5/10 year)
    • At least $2M of inventory
  • Good LIFO Election Candidate: Must meet the good LIFO candidate criteria listed above & have an election year inflation rate that’s greater than or equal to the historical average annual inflation rate
  • Good 2022 LIFO Election Candidates List: Download here: 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List
  • Election Year LIFO Tax Savings Formula & Example
    • Formulas
      • Election year taxable income reduction from LIFO (LIFO expense): Prior year inventory balance at cost * Current year inflation rate
      • Election year LIFO tax benefit: Current year LIFO expense * Combined federal & state tax rate
    • Example:
      • Assumptions: $5M prior year end inventory balance, 10% current year inflation & 40% tax rate
      • Results:
        • Election year LIFO expense: $5M * 10% = $500K
        • Election year LIFO tax benefit: $500K * 40% = $200K
Download 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List Here: 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List
PPI CodePPI Comm. Desc.Good Candidate’22 Election Candidate11M 11/22 (YTD)12M 12/2112M 12/203Y Avg.5Y Avg.10Y Avg.20Y Avg.Infl. Freq. 02 – 21YTD vs. 20Y Avg. Infl. Mult.
01Farm productsYesYes25.0%23.9%3.1%8.0%6.8%1.5%4.0%14 of 206.3
011Fruits & melons, fresh/dry vegs. & nutsYesYes55.3%9.4%-4.5%-5.5%5.6%3.4%3.2%14 of 2017.3
0111Fresh fruits and melonsYesYes22.5%16.8%-11.7%-6.0%2.5%2.7%1.6%13 of 2014.0
0113Fresh and dry vegetablesYesYes112.7%0.7%10.2%-6.2%10.1%4.7%4.3%11 of 2026.4
0119Tree nutsYesNo-4.3%15.1%-18.8%-1.7%1.5%1.9%5.7%11 of 20-0.8
012GrainsYesYes12.4%43.9%14.4%18.5%13.8%0.8%5.6%13 of 202.2
0121WheatNoNo1.7%58.6%17.3%20.2%18.3%3.4%5.8%10 of 200.3
0122Other grainsYesYes15.3%41.3%14.2%18.6%12.9%0.2%5.6%13 of 202.7
0123Rough riceYesYes25.5%12.5%4.5%7.0%6.9%-0.5%3.4%11 of 197.6
013Slaughter livestockYesYes11.3%23.0%-4.5%6.6%4.2%0.7%3.7%13 of 203.0
0131Slaughter cattleYesYes12.7%24.8%-8.6%5.0%3.6%1.1%3.7%12 of 203.4
0132Slaughter hogsYesYes17.1%15.1%10.5%11.4%6.1%-1.1%3.0%11 of 205.7
0133Slaughter lambsYesNo-33.9%35.5%23.4%20.3%11.3%7.0%7.6%14 of 20-4.4
014Slaughter poultryYesYes5.9%52.4%-1.1%14.7%8.4%4.7%5.2%12 of 201.2
0141Slaughter chickensYesNo0.3%63.2%-4.6%15.3%10.0%5.3%5.3%13 of 200.1
0142Slaughter turkeysYesYes35.4%17.6%14.2%13.8%2.3%2.5%4.6%15 of 207.8
0143Slaughter ducksYesYes7.8%4.7%1.2%2.1%1.5%1.3%3.5%18 of 202.2
015Raw cottonYesNo-16.0%48.6%15.6%12.3%8.3%0.9%5.9%13 of 20-2.7
0151Raw cottonYesNo-16.0%48.6%15.5%12.2%8.3%0.9%5.9%13 of 20-2.7
016Raw milkYesYes43.3%-3.5%2.8%8.4%2.0%-0.1%1.8%13 of 2023.6
0161Raw milkYesYes43.3%-3.5%2.8%8.4%2.0%-0.1%1.8%13 of 2023.6
017Chicken eggsYesYes167.3%95.5%-33.7%6.1%9.2%1.4%4.7%12 of 2035.6
0171Chicken eggsYesYes167.3%95.5%-33.7%6.1%9.2%1.4%4.7%12 of 2035.6
018Hay, hayseeds, and oilseedsYesYes14.5%11.5%25.1%11.9%6.1%1.1%4.8%13 of 203.0
0181Hay and hayseedsYesYes5.7%32.8%-2.1%5.6%11.7%1.5%4.2%12 of 201.4
0183OilseedsYesYes16.3%8.0%31.1%13.3%5.0%1.0%5.2%12 of 203.1
02Processed foods and feedsYesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
021Cereal and bakery productsYesYes15.5%9.2%0.1%3.2%2.7%1.5%2.8%16 of 205.6
0211Bakery productsYesYes14.1%4.8%-1.1%1.4%1.9%1.6%2.4%19 of 205.9
0212Flour and flour base mixes and doughsYesYes17.7%19.9%1.3%6.7%4.5%1.7%3.5%14 of 205.1
0213Milled rice and byproductsYesYes20.6%6.9%6.8%5.4%5.6%1.3%5.3%15 of 203.9
0214Cereal and pasta productsYesYes15.3%9.7%0.4%3.4%2.5%1.1%2.6%15 of 205.9
022Meats, poultry, and fishYesNo-0.4%20.0%2.7%9.2%4.8%2.7%3.3%15 of 20-0.1
0221MeatsYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%7.9%4.8%2.3%3.3%16 of 20-0.2
0222Processed poultryYesYes4.5%26.5%2.2%10.8%3.9%2.8%2.6%15 of 201.7
0223Unprocessed and prepared seafoodYesNo-11.0%36.3%-0.5%13.1%7.1%5.2%5.1%13 of 20-2.1
023Dairy productsYesYes13.9%7.6%-3.0%4.0%1.9%1.0%2.2%12 of 206.3
0231Fluid milk productsYesYes16.6%6.6%-0.9%4.0%2.5%1.6%2.7%12 of 206.2
0232ButterYesYes44.6%40.7%-26.0%-3.1%-0.7%2.3%2.4%11 of 2018.8
0233Natural, processed, and imitation cheeseYesYes12.9%2.0%-5.1%3.7%0.4%0.2%1.8%11 of 207.4
0234Ice cream and frozen dessertsYesYes13.5%5.1%-1.9%2.0%1.8%1.4%2.1%18 of 206.5
0235Dry, condensed, and evaporated milk productsYesYes2.8%18.5%4.1%7.9%4.7%0.0%1.9%14 of 201.5
024Processed fruits and vegetablesYesYes17.7%4.5%3.8%2.4%2.4%1.7%2.7%17 of 206.5
0241Canned fruits and juicesYesYes14.8%4.3%4.4%1.9%0.8%1.8%2.6%16 of 205.8
0242Frozen fruits, juices and adesYesNo-2.3%21.4%8.0%3.4%3.9%2.1%3.6%12 of 20-0.6
0244Canned vegetables and juicesYesYes23.2%5.7%2.3%3.8%3.5%1.4%2.2%16 of 2010.7
0245Frozen vegetablesYesYes24.3%1.9%2.7%2.1%2.8%1.5%2.8%18 of 208.6
0248Dried and dehydrated foodYesYes11.5%0.1%5.5%1.0%2.0%2.1%16 of 195.4
025Sugar and confectioneryYesYes9.1%3.1%-1.4%1.7%1.2%0.5%2.6%16 of 203.5
0252Raw cane sugar and sugar cane mill products and byproductsYesYes12.9%7.9%9.2%6.9%3.1%-0.7%2.6%12 of 204.9
0253Refined sugar products and byproductsYesYes8.0%5.8%4.7%5.0%4.3%-0.5%2.8%14 of 202.8
0254Confectionery materialsYesYes17.8%5.4%-4.4%2.7%2.1%-0.1%2.6%15 of 207.0
0255Confectionery end productsYesYes6.3%1.4%-2.6%0.3%0.2%1.1%2.5%16 of 202.5
026Beverages and beverage materialsYesYes11.0%3.3%2.1%2.3%1.9%1.4%2.1%20 of 205.3
0261Alcoholic beveragesYesYes6.3%-0.4%1.9%0.5%1.1%1.0%1.7%18 of 203.8
0262Soft drinksYesYes14.2%7.3%2.4%4.5%3.1%2.3%2.4%20 of 206.0
0263Packaged beverage materialsYesYes19.1%2.6%0.3%1.0%0.7%-1.3%2.3%14 of 208.2
0264Other beverage materialsYesYes13.7%10.7%4.7%6.2%4.4%3.1%2.9%18 of 204.7
027Fats and oilsYesYes17.2%42.5%10.8%14.7%8.3%1.9%6.3%11 of 202.7
0278Shortening, cooking oil, and margarineNoNo19.4%35.3%7.7%11.7%6.9%1.4%4.9%10 of 204.0
027AOther oilseed processingYesYes9.1%60.0%15.2%21.4%11.2%4.5%11 of 182.0
027BCorn oil, crude and refinedYesNo11.2%82.2%57.3%37.9%3 of 50.3
028Miscellaneous processed foodsYesYes19.2%5.9%1.2%2.0%2.4%1.6%2.2%16 of 208.9
0281Canned jams, jellies, and preservesYesYes8.5%9.7%0.4%3.4%2.3%2.4%2.5%17 of 203.5
0282Pickles and other pickled products, including horseradishYesYes13.9%12.5%0.8%4.2%4.0%2.2%2.1%16 of 206.5
0284Specialty canningYesYes22.8%7.2%-0.3%2.8%2.3%1.8%2.1%17 of 2011.0
0285Frozen specialty foodYesYes17.1%3.4%0.6%1.2%0.5%0.6%1.4%14 of 2012.6
0286Prepared sauces, except tomatoYesYes12.7%2.9%0.3%1.4%1.4%1.1%1.6%17 of 207.9
0289Other miscellaneous processed foodsYesYes13.3%6.1%2.2%2.4%2.9%2.0%2.5%17 of 205.4
029Prepared animal feedsYesYes16.2%8.0%9.6%5.9%3.9%1.4%3.9%15 of 204.1
0292Soybean cake, meal, and other byproductsYesYes10.8%-1.6%9.1%0.6%0.6%0.4%2.9%13 of 203.7
0293Formula feedsYesYes13.1%16.3%8.6%9.0%5.9%1.6%4.6%15 of 202.9
0294Miscellaneous feedstuffsYesYes20.7%6.3%10.4%6.0%3.8%1.8%3.8%14 of 205.5
03Textile products and apparelYesYes8.3%15.4%-0.2%4.7%3.8%1.9%1.8%14 of 204.5
031Synthetic fibersNoNo6.5%22.0%-3.0%5.4%5.5%2.5%1.9%10 of 203.5
0315Unprocessed filament yarnsYesYes6.5%22.0%-3.0%5.4%5.5%2.5%1.9%11 of 203.5
032Processed yarns and threadsYesYes8.0%29.3%-2.0%6.7%5.8%1.8%2.7%13 of 202.9
0326YarnsYesYes8.2%30.2%-2.1%6.8%5.9%1.8%2.7%14 of 203.0
033Greige fabricsYesYes9.5%13.3%-1.1%3.2%2.6%0.3%1.6%12 of 205.7
0337Greige broadwoven fabricsYesYes8.7%10.0%-0.8%3.1%2.5%0.4%1.7%13 of 205.2
0338Greige knit fabricsYesYes9.9%7.2%2.1%3.2%2.3%0.7%2.2%13 of 204.5
0339Tire cord and tire fabricYesYes10.8%#VALUE!#VALUE!2.9%-0.3%1.6%8 of 156.8
034Finished fabricsYesYes9.5%14.5%1.8%5.7%4.1%2.3%2.2%15 of 204.3
0342Finished broadwoven fabricsYesYes4.5%26.4%11.2%11.7%7.3%3.4%3.1%14 of 201.4
0344Woven and braided narrow fabricsYesYes13.8%13.5%0.6%4.8%4.2%3.8%2.8%19 of 204.9
0345Nonwoven fabrics and feltsYesYes9.6%14.5%-2.3%4.3%3.2%1.8%1.8%12 of 205.3
0346Coated fabrics, not rubberizedYesYes13.5%6.7%1.1%2.8%2.9%1.8%2.3%17 of 205.9
0347Screen printed textile materials, embroideries, and lace goodsYesYes9.4%10.0%1.8%5.1%3.6%2.0%1.7%17 of 205.5
0348Knit fabrics, finished in knitting millsYesYes16.0%13.6%1.5%5.6%4.0%2.4%15 of 196.7
038Apparel & other fabricated textile prodsYesYes4.9%7.0%-0.1%2.7%2.2%1.8%1.4%17 of 203.5
0381ApparelYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
0382Textile house furnishingsYesYes2.6%3.9%0.2%1.3%1.2%2.2%1.8%18 of 201.4
0383Industrial and other fabricated productsYesYes6.1%11.8%1.7%5.3%3.6%2.5%2.0%17 of 203.0
039Miscellaneous textile products/servicesYesYes27.7%25.7%2.2%5.2%3.7%1.7%1.8%13 of 2015.3
0394Miscellaneous textile products/servicesYesYes27.7%25.7%2.1%5.2%3 of 45.4
04Hides, skins, leather, and related productsYesYes3.9%0.9%3.0%0.3%-2.5%-1.3%0.6%12 of 206.6
041Hides and skins, incl. cattleNoNo-2.6%-15.6%12.4%-6.5%-11.0%-7.5%-1.4%9 of 201.8
0419Hides and skins, incl. cattleNoNo-2.6%-15.5%12.4%-6.5%-11.0%-7.5%-1.4%8 of 201.8
042LeatherNoNo-1.0%13.2%-0.6%2.6%-3.0%-2.3%0.3%11 of 20-3.6
0427Finished and unfinished leatherNoNo-1.0%13.2%-0.6%2.6%-3.0%-2.3%0.3%11 of 20-3.6
043FootwearYesYes11.1%6.0%-0.2%3.0%2.3%2.7%2.1%18 of 205.2
0431Men’s nonathletic footwearYesYes13.8%6.7%0.3%3.1%2.2%2.8%2.4%20 of 205.9
0432Women’s nonathletic footwearYesYes4.1%3.6%0.0%2.8%2.3%2.4%1.6%15 of 202.5
044Other leather and related productsYesYes4.3%3.0%1.1%1.8%1.7%2.1%1.6%20 of 202.6
0441Luggage and small leather goodsYesYes2.5%0.8%1.2%1.0%1.6%1.5%1.5%17 of 201.7
0445Leather and leather-like goods, n.e.c.YesYes6.5%5.9%1.1%2.7%1.9%2.9%1.9%20 of 203.4
05Fuels and related products and powerYesYes20.8%38.3%-6.3%6.7%6.9%0.2%4.9%13 of 204.2
051CoalYesYes62.9%0.4%-5.7%-1.9%-0.3%-0.9%3.5%15 of 2018.1
0511AnthraciteYesYes34.0%9.7%0.2%3.4%3.6%0.8%3.6%15 of 209.5
0512Bituminous coal and ligniteYesYes63.1%0.4%-5.7%-2.0%-0.3%-0.9%3.5%15 of 2018.2
053Gas fuelsYesNo-13.9%108.2%9.1%1.3%7.8%0.5%4.6%11 of 20-3.0
0531Natural gasYesNo-14.6%110.0%10.1%-0.8%7.2%3.2%3.7%11 of 20-3.9
0532Liquefied petroleum gasYesNo-10.4%99.3%4.0%16.6%9.9%-6.2%5.6%13 of 20-1.9
055Utility natural gasYesNo-0.4%40.5%14.5%9.0%9.3%4.5%4.4%13 of 20-0.1
0551Residential natural gasYesYes14.3%26.0%4.7%8.8%6.7%3.4%3.7%12 of 203.9
0552Commercial natural gasYesYes17.4%31.6%4.8%9.0%7.6%3.2%3.6%12 of 204.8
0553Industrial natural gasYesYes17.7%47.2%3.1%8.5%7.7%2.0%2.7%13 of 206.5
0554Natural gas to electric powerYesNo-20.0%58.8%34.0%9.2%12.8%6.6%7.2%12 of 20-2.8
056Crude petroleum (domestic production)YesYes28.4%48.6%-22.3%9.2%6.0%-3.9%7.7%13 of 203.7
0561Crude petroleum (domestic production)YesYes28.4%48.6%-22.3%9.2%6.0%-3.9%7.7%13 of 203.7
057Petroleum products, refinedYesYes39.9%57.4%-15.3%11.8%10.8%-1.0%7.7%13 of 205.2
0571GasolineYesYes17.1%67.0%-23.1%13.6%8.3%-1.7%7.1%13 of 202.4
0572Kerosene and jet fuelsYesYes67.8%50.2%-27.0%3.0%7.0%-3.5%7.0%14 of 209.7
0573Light fuel oilsYesYes68.0%54.5%-5.8%13.2%16.3%0.7%9.1%15 of 207.5
0574Residual fuels (heavy fuel oils, incl. #5, #6, & other residual fuels)YesNo-10.1%70.7%12.0%9.3%14.3%-2.5%6.4%12 of 20-1.6
0576Finished lubricantsYesYes22.9%14.6%-0.6%5.3%5.4%1.6%6.6%14 of 203.5
0578Lubricating oil base stocksYesNo38.9%67.3%-14.3%13.1%13.3%-1.7%7 of 13-22.9
058Asphalt and other petroleum and coal products, n.e.c.YesYes9.5%48.7%11.9%8.7%15.2%-1.9%9.0%13 of 201.1
0581Asphalt and other petroleum and coal products, n.e.c.YesYes9.5%48.7%11.9%8.7%15.2%-1.9%9.0%13 of 201.1
06Chemicals and allied productsYesYes4.0%22.9%0.7%6.4%5.5%2.6%4.5%17 of 200.9
061Industrial chemicalsYesNo1.7%44.5%-3.1%9.3%7.3%0.9%5.3%12 of 200.3
0613Basic inorganic chemicalsYesYes29.8%12.6%-0.8%3.3%4.3%0.1%4.9%12 of 206.0
0614Basic organic chemicalsYesNo-2.3%50.5%-3.6%10.2%7.8%1.0%5.4%12 of 20-0.4
062Paints and allied productsYesYes19.9%13.9%1.4%6.0%5.1%2.7%3.9%17 of 205.1
0621Prepared paintYesYes20.3%15.4%1.6%6.3%5.4%3.5%3.9%18 of 205.2
0622Paint materialsYesYes20.6%8.9%0.7%4.9%4.4%0.4%3.5%16 of 205.9
0623Allied and miscellaneous paint productsYesYes10.0%17.6%1.2%6.1%4.9%2.6%4.2%17 of 202.4
063Drugs and pharmaceuticalsYesNo1.9%2.9%1.8%2.4%3.2%4.6%4.5%20 of 200.4
0631Medicinal and botanical chemicals, drugs, and other productsYesYes1.7%0.3%0.4%0.0%0.8%0.4%1.3%14 of 201.3
0637Biological products, including diagnosticsYesNo0.6%9.6%2.4%5.2%3.3%2.9%2.8%18 of 200.2
0638Pharmaceutical preparationsYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%3.3%5.4%5.2%20 of 200.4
064Fats and oils, inedibleYesYes21.7%49.7%15.2%21.3%8.3%0.5%7.4%12 of 202.9
0641Fats and oils, inedibleYesYes21.7%49.7%15.2%21.3%8.3%0.5%7.4%12 of 202.9
065Agricultural chemicals and chemical productsYesYes17.9%49.5%3.8%12.5%10.2%2.4%5.1%13 of 203.5
0651Mixed fertilizersYesYes14.2%36.2%4.6%9.7%8.2%2.1%4.0%13 of 203.5
0652Fertilizer materialsYesNo5.1%100.6%9.8%20.9%17.1%2.6%7.7%13 of 200.7
0653Other agricultural chemicalsYesYes42.8%6.4%-1.7%3.0%2.6%1.5%1.7%14 of 2025.5
066Plastic resins and materialsYesNo-8.1%36.3%5.6%8.6%7.7%3.2%4.7%14 of 20-1.7
0662Thermoplastic resins and plastics materialsYesNo-11.0%39.4%6.8%9.3%8.3%3.4%5.0%14 of 20-2.2
0663Thermosetting resins and plastics materialsYesYes13.0%17.0%-0.7%3.7%3.8%1.6%3.2%16 of 204.0
067Other chemicals and allied productsYesYes10.5%8.7%0.3%3.3%2.8%1.9%2.4%19 of 204.3
0671Soaps and detergentsYesYes11.6%6.1%0.5%2.6%1.9%1.4%2.0%17 of 205.7
0672Polish and other sanitation goodsYesYes6.3%4.2%1.0%3.1%3.9%2.5%2.2%17 of 202.9
0675Cosmetics and other toilet preparationsYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%0.9%1.0%1.1%1.1%17 of 206.0
0679Misc. chemical prod. and preparationsYesYes12.7%13.7%0.3%4.8%3.7%2.4%3.5%19 of 203.7
07Rubber and plastic productsYesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%6.4%5.1%2.5%3.2%17 of 202.6
071Rubber and rubber productsYesYes11.0%11.0%0.3%3.5%2.8%0.6%2.7%14 of 204.1
0711Synthetic rubber, inc. styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene propyleneYesYes5.1%19.8%0.1%4.0%3.4%-0.8%3.5%13 of 201.4
0712Tires, tubes, tread, & repair materialsYesYes14.7%8.3%0.3%2.9%2.4%0.4%2.8%15 of 205.3
0713Miscellaneous rubber productsYesYes10.4%10.1%0.5%3.7%3.0%1.7%2.4%17 of 204.3
072Plastic productsYesYes7.6%24.1%0.7%7.2%5.7%3.1%3.3%16 of 202.3
0721Plastic construction productsYesYes10.2%33.3%6.4%12.3%8.7%4.9%4.6%17 of 202.2
0722Unsupported plastic film, sheet and other shapesYesYes3.9%26.2%1.1%7.9%5.9%2.9%3.7%16 of 201.0
0723Laminated plastic sheets, rods, and tubesYesYes12.7%7.6%1.2%3.1%2.5%2.1%16 of 196.0
0726Parts for manufacturing from plasticsYesYes4.8%16.2%-1.2%4.9%3.6%2.4%2.1%16 of 202.3
0729Other plastic productsYesYes5.0%19.3%-0.4%4.9%4.5%3.0%3.4%15 of 201.5
072APlastic packaging productsYesYes7.7%25.6%-1.7%6.0%5.7%2.3%9 of 163.3
072BConsumer, institutional, and commercial products, n.e.c.YesYes13.4%25.2%-0.2%7.3%6.1%3.4%11 of 163.9
072CRecyclable plasticsYesNo-11.7%30.4%4.8%11.0%7.1%6 of 10-1.6
08Lumber and wood productsYesNo-1.9%16.4%16.1%10.2%7.3%5.0%3.2%14 of 20-0.6
081LumberNoNo-21.3%19.6%38.3%17.6%10.9%7.7%3.8%10 of 20-5.6
0811Softwood lumberYesNo-22.5%14.1%52.5%22.1%13.5%9.2%4.5%12 of 20-5.1
0812Hardwood lumberYesNo-18.5%34.3%10.7%9.4%6.3%5.1%2.7%11 of 20-6.8
082MillworkYesYes9.3%17.7%7.9%8.6%6.8%4.8%3.2%19 of 202.9
0821General millworkYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%5.9%4.5%3.5%2.5%19 of 204.3
0822Prefabricated structural membersYesYes4.7%32.0%30.7%19.1%16.4%10.6%5.7%15 of 200.8
083PlywoodYesYes4.7%14.2%30.3%10.7%9.1%5.4%3.4%11 of 201.4
0831Softwood veneer and plywoodNoNo2.0%10.0%52.8%13.2%11.3%6.5%4.0%10 of 200.5
0835Hardwood veneer and plywoodYesYes9.5%22.4%0.6%6.7%6.2%3.8%13 of 162.5
084Other wood productsYesYes5.4%17.1%2.9%7.2%6.0%3.9%2.5%16 of 202.1
0841Wood pallets and pallet containers, wood and metal combinationYesYes5.7%32.8%2.6%12.4%9.9%6.2%3.9%16 of 201.5
0842Wood boxesYesNo-2.4%8.3%6.4%5.5%4.1%2.5%2.3%18 of 20-1.0
0849Miscellaneous wood productsYesYes7.1%4.0%2.3%2.3%2.5%2.0%1.6%17 of 204.5
085Logs, bolts, timber, pulpwood and wood chipsYesYes4.5%7.8%3.2%2.1%1.9%1.2%2.0%15 of 202.3
0851Logs, bolts, timber, pulpwood and wood chipsYesYes4.5%7.8%3.2%2.1%1.9%1.2%2.0%15 of 202.3
086Prefabricated wood buildings & componentsYesYes6.2%25.6%6.2%10.6%8.0%5.3%3.7%17 of 201.7
0861Prefabricated wood buildings & componentsYesYes6.2%25.6%6.2%10.6%8.0%5.3%3.7%17 of 201.7
087Treated wood and contract wood preservingYesYes9.6%6.1%12.4%7.1%4.8%4.3%2.7%15 of 203.6
0871Treated wood and contract wood preservingYesYes9.6%6.1%12.4%7.1%4.8%4.3%2.7%15 of 203.6
09Pulp, paper, and allied productsYesYes8.9%16.0%3.0%5.3%4.1%2.3%2.6%16 of 203.4
091Pulp, paper, and prod., ex. bldg. paperYesYes8.2%18.6%1.6%4.9%4.2%2.3%2.8%15 of 202.9
0911Wood pulpYesYes23.0%42.8%1.8%-2.8%3.7%0.7%3.0%12 of 207.6
0912Recyclable paperNoNo-66.8%90.7%95.1%23.2%7.0%3.3%6.8%9 of 20-9.8
0913PaperYesYes8.3%17.9%-1.9%4.4%4.4%1.8%2.3%12 of 203.6
0914PaperboardYesYes10.7%24.2%0.0%5.2%6.0%3.5%3.4%11 of 203.2
0915Converted paper and paperboard productsYesYes14.3%11.6%0.5%4.1%3.2%2.2%2.5%16 of 205.7
0916Pressure-sensitive productsYesYes13.9%11.2%0.7%4.0%3.6%1.2%2.0%12 of 196.8
092Building paper & building board mill prods.YesNo-8.9%13.6%60.7%22.5%12.5%8.5%5.6%11 of 20-1.6
0922Hardboard, particleboard & fiberboard prods.YesNo-8.9%13.6%60.7%22.4%12.5%8.6%5.6%11 of 20-1.6
094Publications, printed matter and printing materialYesYes13.5%9.5%1.5%4.5%3.2%1.7%12 of 138.0
0944Books printingYesYes23.4%11.8%2.2%5.3%3.7%2.7%11 of 158.8
0945Manifold business forms printingYesNo0.1%4.8%2.6%3.6%3.9%2.7%13 of 150.0
0947Commercial printingYesYes13.9%9.8%0.8%4.4%3.0%1.4%11 of 159.7
0948Blankbooks, binders, and bookbinding workYesYes11.1%8.6%9.6%7.3%6.1%4.0%15 of 152.8
0949Services for the printing tradeNoNo1.9%3.2%#VALUE!1.1%0.2%4 of 1010.4
10Metals and metal productsYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
101Iron and steelYesNo-23.6%90.6%10.0%20.9%17.1%5.5%7.2%12 of 20-3.3
1011Iron oresYesYes11.9%20.7%6.7%10.4%9.4%0.4%3.4%15 of 203.5
1012Iron and steel scrapYesNo-33.0%37.6%44.0%12.7%14.3%1.4%10.1%12 of 20-3.3
1015Foundry and forge shop productsYesYes13.3%12.2%3.0%4.7%3.3%1.8%2.9%15 of 204.6
1017Steel mill productsYesNo-26.5%134.4%2.1%26.5%20.8%7.7%7.9%12 of 20-3.4
102Nonferrous metalsYesNo-2.4%19.2%12.2%11.1%8.5%2.6%5.2%14 of 20-0.5
1021Nonferrous metal oresYesNo-0.7%8.7%21.6%16.0%12.9%3.7%11.4%15 of 20-0.1
1022Primary nonferrous metalsYesNo-12.0%24.1%17.4%13.4%7.9%2.5%5.1%12 of 20-2.4
1023Nonferrous scrapYesNo-5.9%13.2%23.1%12.9%10.1%2.8%7.0%14 of 20-0.8
1024Secondary nonferrous metalsYesNo1.5%18.2%12.3%11.0%8.1%2.4%5.5%13 of 200.3
1025Nonferrous mill shapesYesNo-4.3%26.1%3.3%8.5%7.5%2.6%3.5%12 of 20-1.2
1026Nonferrous wire and cableYesNo1.1%30.3%8.0%11.4%8.2%2.3%4.6%12 of 200.2
1027Nonferrous forge shop productsNoNo7.8%7.4%1.0%3.5%2.3%0.6%1.0%9 of 198.2
1028Nonferrous foundry shop productsYesYes11.4%12.9%2.7%4.2%3.4%1.5%2.7%15 of 204.3
103Metal containersYesYes16.6%21.6%0.7%6.9%6.4%2.7%3.2%14 of 205.2
1031Metal cans and can componentsYesYes21.2%15.3%0.1%4.9%4.9%1.8%2.6%14 of 198.2
1032Barrels, drums, pails and other metal containersYesNo3.1%45.3%3.3%13.8%11.8%6.3%5.8%16 of 200.5
104HardwareYesYes4.9%17.5%1.8%6.6%5.0%2.9%2.8%18 of 201.8
1041Hardware, n.e.c.YesYes3.6%25.8%1.4%8.7%6.3%3.5%3.2%19 of 201.1
1042Hand and edge toolsYesYes7.4%4.7%2.5%3.2%2.8%1.9%2.1%19 of 203.6
105Plumbing fixtures and fittingsYesYes8.5%5.4%1.9%3.5%3.4%2.5%2.7%20 of 203.2
1054Plumbing fixture fittings and trimYesYes9.6%4.3%1.9%3.3%3.7%2.5%2.8%20 of 203.4
1056Enameled iron & metal sanitary wareYesYes8.5%8.4%2.9%4.9%3.6%2.9%3.4%16 of 192.5
106Heating equipmentYesYes9.8%21.3%0.4%8.3%6.4%4.1%4.0%20 of 202.4
1061Steam and hot water equipmentYesYes12.7%15.0%1.2%6.0%4.7%3.2%4.0%19 of 203.2
1062Furnaces and heaters, including partsYesYes18.7%12.2%1.6%7.0%5.4%3.3%2.7%17 of 206.9
1063Other heating equipment, non-electric, including partsYesYes14.1%17.4%0.9%7.2%5.5%3.7%3.2%20 of 204.4
1064Domestic heating stovesYesYes5.6%10.1%1.4%4.6%3.9%2.9%3.0%17 of 201.9
1066Domestic water heatersYesNo-3.2%43.3%-2.4%12.7%9.6%6.2%7.0%15 of 20-0.5
107Fabricated structural metal productsYesYes6.6%41.6%2.2%13.0%9.7%4.9%4.5%17 of 201.5
1071Metal doors, sash, and trimYesYes10.2%38.6%2.9%13.2%10.1%5.6%4.3%18 of 202.4
1072Metal tanksYesYes10.8%34.8%4.5%13.4%8.0%4.3%4.0%14 of 202.7
1073Sheet metal productsYesYes6.9%36.9%-0.3%10.7%8.2%3.7%3.7%14 of 201.9
1074Structural, architectural, and pre-engineered metal productsYesYes5.9%50.6%0.9%14.6%11.1%5.3%4.8%16 of 201.2
1075Heat exchangers and steam condensersYesYes11.6%15.5%1.1%6.4%5.2%3.4%3.9%18 of 203.0
1076Fabricated steel plateYesYes6.2%33.3%7.1%12.4%8.0%4.1%3.9%15 of 201.6
1079Prefabricated metal buildingsYesNo-2.6%40.7%12.2%14.3%11.4%6.4%6.7%14 of 20-0.4
108Miscellaneous metal productsYesYes8.1%14.0%0.7%5.1%4.3%2.1%2.4%17 of 203.4
1081Bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, and washersYesYes15.0%16.6%4.4%8.5%6.0%3.3%3.5%17 of 204.3
1083Lighting fixturesYesYes6.8%7.4%1.7%3.9%3.7%2.3%2.0%20 of 203.4
1086Ordnance and ordnance accessories, n.e.c.YesYes4.9%19.6%0.0%3.0%2.2%0.1%1.8%10 of 192.8
1088Fabricated ferrous wire productsYesYes13.9%29.9%1.2%8.7%8.6%4.2%4.8%16 of 202.9
1089Other miscellaneous metal productsYesYes6.8%13.0%0.1%4.5%3.8%1.7%2.0%15 of 203.4
11Machinery and equipmentYesYes8.8%7.1%1.0%3.2%2.6%1.5%1.2%16 of 207.6
111Agricultural machinery and equipmentYesYes12.6%14.6%1.0%5.8%4.3%2.8%2.9%20 of 204.3
1114Agricultural machinery and equipmentYesYes12.6%14.7%1.0%5.8%4.3%2.8%20 of 204.6
112Construction machinery and equipmentYesYes8.7%10.1%1.2%4.4%3.5%2.6%2.8%20 of 203.0
112ATractors and attachments, ex. partsYesYes5.1%9.7%1.0%4.7%3.7%2.6%2.7%19 of 201.9
112BPower cranes, draglines, & shovels (excavators) (incl. surface mining equipment) (excl. parts)YesYes11.1%8.5%0.9%3.7%2.9%1.9%2.5%19 of 204.4
112CMixers, pavers, and related equipment (excluding parts)YesYes15.6%13.5%2.4%6.3%5.4%3.7%2.9%17 of 205.3
112DOff-highway, equipment, ex. partsYesYes10.3%7.0%1.7%3.5%2.6%2.8%2.9%20 of 203.6
112JMisc. construction machinery and equipmentYesYes8.4%12.1%1.8%4.9%3.8%3.2%16 of 172.7
112KParts for construction machinery and equipment, sold separatelyYesYes11.9%10.7%0.7%4.1%3.7%9 of 93.2
113Metalworking machinery and equipmentYesYes7.6%7.3%0.7%3.1%2.7%1.9%1.8%19 of 204.3
1132Power-driven handtools, including parts and attachmentsYesYes6.1%9.9%2.4%4.6%3.3%2.6%1.7%18 of 203.6
1133Welding machines and equipmentYesYes7.1%13.5%1.2%5.3%4.9%3.3%3.7%19 of 201.9
1134Industrial process furnaces and ovensYesYes11.0%8.2%2.3%4.3%3.3%2.3%2.1%19 of 205.2
1135Cutting tools and accessoriesYesYes5.0%4.1%0.9%2.1%2.0%1.4%1.8%20 of 202.8
1136Abrasive productsYesYes9.5%11.3%2.4%5.4%4.1%2.8%2.7%20 of 203.5
1137Metal cutting machine toolsYesYes3.3%4.9%1.9%2.7%1.9%1.8%1.8%18 of 201.9
1138Metal forming machine toolsYesYes5.2%3.6%1.8%3.2%2.5%2.0%2.1%18 of 202.5
1139Tools, dies, jigs, fixtures & ind. moldsYesYes7.7%6.3%-1.5%1.6%1.7%1.0%0.7%14 of 2010.5
114General purpose machinery and equipmentYesYes13.1%10.1%1.8%4.6%4.0%2.8%3.0%20 of 204.3
1141Pumps, compressors, and equipmentYesYes16.0%7.6%0.7%3.1%3.2%2.6%3.1%20 of 205.2
1142Elevators, escalators, and other liftsYesYes5.0%16.7%0.9%7.1%5.3%3.4%2.4%16 of 202.1
1143Fluid power equipmentYesYes11.4%8.7%1.1%4.0%3.3%2.4%3.0%20 of 203.7
1144Industrial material handling equipmentYesYes9.5%14.4%1.7%5.6%4.6%3.4%3.3%19 of 202.9
1145Mechanical power transmission equipmentYesYes14.6%8.0%1.7%3.8%3.4%2.3%3.1%18 of 204.7
1146Scales and balancesYesYes9.5%11.9%1.1%4.8%5.3%3.9%2.9%20 of 203.2
1147Air purification equipment and industrial and commercial fans and blowersYesYes10.3%9.6%1.8%4.9%4.0%2.9%2.8%19 of 203.6
1148Air conditioning and refrigeration equipYesYes18.3%14.7%2.6%6.7%5.4%3.3%2.8%19 of 206.5
1149Miscellaneous general purpose equipmentYesYes10.7%6.9%2.4%4.0%3.6%2.6%3.2%20 of 203.3
115Electronic computers and computer equipmentNoNo3.7%4.3%-3.4%-0.9%-1.0%-2.4%-5.1%2 of 20-0.7
1151Electronic computersNoNo-1.0%15.7%-5.8%-0.8%-2.6%-4.2%-11.0%2 of 200.1
1152Computer storage devicesNoNo4.2%3.1%-3.7%1.5%0.4%-0.4%-8.0%5 of 20-0.5
1154Computer peripheral equipment and partsNoNo6.2%-1.2%-1.6%-2.8%-0.6%-1.1%-1.0%7 of 20-6.5
116Special industry machinery and equipmentYesYes10.6%11.6%2.1%5.1%3.7%2.3%2.0%19 of 205.4
1161Food products machineryYesYes10.0%7.1%2.7%4.0%3.5%2.9%3.0%20 of 203.4
1162Textile machinery and equipmentYesYes5.7%1.0%1.0%0.7%0.5%0.5%0.5%14 of 2012.1
1163Sawmill and woodworking machineryYesYes10.4%9.5%2.3%3.9%4.9%4.2%3.0%18 of 203.5
1164Paper industries machineryYesYes8.8%5.6%0.4%2.8%2.0%1.8%1.9%20 of 204.7
1165Printing trades machinery and equipmentYesYes1.4%7.0%-0.6%2.1%1.5%1.1%1.0%14 of 201.4
1166Other special industry machineryYesYes11.2%16.5%4.0%7.6%5.0%2.5%1.6%16 of 207.1
1167Packing, packaging, and bottling machinery and partsYesYes9.7%10.0%-1.7%3.0%2.8%2.6%2.6%19 of 203.7
1168Service industry machinery and partsYesYes11.5%8.9%1.6%3.8%2.9%2.4%2.5%20 of 204.5
1169Commercial laundry and drycleaning machinery productsYesYes16.1%5.7%0.4%3.1%2.8%2.2%2.8%20 of 205.8
117Electrical machinery and equipmentYesYes6.8%5.2%0.6%2.3%1.9%0.9%0.3%11 of 2023.1
1171Wiring devicesYesYes11.0%24.8%6.0%10.5%6.8%3.7%3.7%17 of 202.9
1172Integrating and measuring instrumentsYesYes3.9%-0.2%-0.1%0.2%-0.1%0.4%0.7%14 of 205.4
1173Motors, generators, motor generator setsYesYes10.7%12.1%0.1%4.4%3.6%1.9%2.7%17 of 203.9
1174Transformers and power regulatorsYesYes17.6%36.2%0.8%12.1%9.1%3.6%4.6%15 of 203.9
1175Switchgear, switchboard, industrial controls equipmentYesYes17.5%9.8%1.8%4.6%3.5%2.1%2.6%18 of 206.8
1176Communications and related equipment and miscellaneous electronic systems & equipmentYesYes4.6%3.6%2.6%3.3%2.6%1.6%0.6%15 of 207.2
1177Electric lamp bulbs, tubes, and componentsNoNo7.3%3.6%-0.1%-8.8%-4.3%-3.6%-1.5%9 of 20-4.9
1178Electronic components and accessoriesNoNo4.4%2.1%-2.6%0.2%-0.4%-0.8%-1.8%5 of 20-2.5
1179Miscellaneous electrical machinery and equipmentYesYes6.9%2.3%0.6%0.2%1.9%0.8%0.6%13 of 2011.1
118Miscellaneous instrumentsYesYes9.3%3.5%1.3%2.3%2.1%1.8%1.8%20 of 205.3
1181Automatic environmental controls for monitoring residential, commercial, and appliance useYesYes4.9%7.6%-1.5%3.3%3.2%1.9%1.5%17 of 203.2
1182Industrial process control instrumentsYesYes12.9%2.9%3.2%2.1%1.7%1.7%2.2%20 of 205.8
1184Fluid meters and counting devicesYesYes12.7%5.7%0.5%2.9%2.9%2.9%2.6%20 of 204.8
1185Engineering and scientific instrumentsYesYes4.9%5.2%2.6%3.5%3.2%2.6%2.4%20 of 202.0
1186Measuring instruments and lensesYesYes6.4%2.2%0.9%1.7%1.6%1.3%1.2%19 of 205.4
1189Measuring & controlling devices, n.e.c.YesYes12.9%2.7%0.4%2.0%1.7%1.4%1.1%16 of 2012.0
119Miscellaneous machineryYesYes6.5%4.1%0.8%2.1%1.8%1.1%1.8%17 of 203.6
1191Oil field and gas field machineryYesYes9.7%3.2%-0.2%1.2%1.0%0.8%2.6%15 of 203.8
1192Mining machinery and equipmentYesYes11.4%14.3%2.3%6.9%5.9%4.1%4.4%20 of 202.6
1193Office and store machines and equipmentNoNo0.7%2.5%-1.1%0.7%0.1%0.0%0.5%12 of 201.6
1194Internal combustion enginesYesYes6.9%2.0%1.1%1.3%1.3%0.5%1.0%16 of 207.1
1195Machine shop productsYesYes4.9%4.9%0.1%2.1%2.1%1.3%1.9%19 of 202.6
1197Turbines and turbine generator setsYesYes2.2%3.4%3.5%3.5%1.2%2.2%14 of 191.0
1198Parts & accesories for turbines, turbine generators, and turbine generator setsYesYes18.6%1.4%0.2%0.8%0.2%5 of 781.9
12Furniture and household durablesYesYes7.4%10.9%1.6%4.7%3.9%2.4%2.1%20 of 203.6
121Household furnitureYesYes6.7%13.3%0.9%5.4%4.3%2.7%2.5%19 of 202.7
1211Metal household furnitureYesNo-2.3%26.6%-7.5%11.5%6.5%4.2%2.9%13 of 20-0.8
1212Wood household furnitureYesYes6.5%12.0%1.5%5.0%3.4%2.6%2.4%20 of 202.7
1213Upholstered household furnitureYesYes9.9%16.1%1.1%5.8%4.3%2.7%2.3%19 of 204.3
1214BeddingYesYes4.6%9.3%2.2%4.1%4.9%2.7%2.6%14 of 201.8
1215Metal porch, lawn, outdoor & casual furnitureYesYes19.5%9.3%2.6%5.0%3.8%3.5%3.6%17 of 205.4
1216Nonupholstered household furniture, except wood and metalYesYes6.7%2.0%0.4%0.2%0.2%0.5%1.4%11 of 194.8
122Commercial furnitureYesYes12.5%12.5%1.9%5.5%4.8%2.9%2.7%18 of 204.7
1221Wood office furniture and store fixturesYesYes11.7%10.7%0.6%4.6%3.7%2.6%2.0%20 of 205.7
1222Nonwood furniture and store fixturesYesYes12.4%13.1%3.0%5.8%5.6%3.0%2.9%17 of 204.3
1223Public building furnitureYesYes17.4%13.5%1.4%6.2%5.0%3.2%3.1%19 of 205.6
1224Commercial furniture and fixtures, n.e.c.YesYes11.2%15.8%2.4%7.7%4.6%3.4%2.8%18 of 204.1
123Floor coveringsYesNo-0.2%7.4%0.3%2.5%2.8%1.7%2.5%15 of 20-0.1
1231Carpets and rugsYesNo-0.9%8.7%0.1%2.7%3.0%1.9%2.6%15 of 20-0.4
1232Resilient floor coveringsYesYes4.0%1.2%1.2%1.2%1.1%2.6%14 of 161.6
124Household appliancesYesYes6.4%8.3%1.9%4.4%3.7%1.9%1.3%13 of 204.9
1241Major appliancesYesYes5.8%8.5%2.5%4.6%3.9%2.0%1.4%14 of 204.2
1243Household vacuum cleaners, including parts and attachmentsYesYes9.1%#VALUE!#VALUE!1.7%0.7%0.1%9 of 17126.6
1244Electric housewares and fansYesYes8.7%7.4%-0.3%3.0%2.6%0.8%1.0%15 of 208.4
1245Portable residential lighting fixtures, including parts and accessoriesYesYes8.3%9.8%4.6%7.5%5.3%3.2%2.8%16 of 202.9
125Home electronic equipmentNoNo7.0%8.8%0.8%3.9%2.3%1.0%-0.9%9 of 20-7.4
1257Speakers and commercial sound equipmentYesYes7.2%10.1%1.5%4.3%2.0%1.4%14 of 195.1
1258Other home electronic equipmentYesYes6.7%7.2%0.3%3.5%2.3%0.7%11 of 1810.2
126Other household durable goodsYesYes5.0%9.8%2.6%4.5%3.2%2.1%1.8%20 of 202.8
1261Vitreous china, fine earthenware, and other pottery productsYesYes4.7%9.4%3.8%4.9%4.2%3.0%2.4%20 of 201.9
1266Lawn/garden equipmentYesYes8.4%5.3%0.7%2.5%2.1%1.2%1.0%15 of 208.7
1267Cutlery, flatware (except precious), razors and razor bladesYesYes7.2%5.6%2.0%2.6%1.2%1.4%1.9%18 of 203.8
1268Metal kitchen utensil, pots, and pansYesYes7.4%11.1%0.2%4.6%4.0%2.4%2.4%18 of 203.1
1269Window shades, blinds, and accessoriesYesYes32.0%11.1%2.2%5.3%3.3%2.5%2.1%16 of 2015.6
13Nonmetallic mineral productsYesYes13.0%7.8%2.1%3.8%3.5%3.0%3.3%19 of 203.9
131GlassYesYes9.7%6.5%3.3%3.7%3.0%2.8%1.5%15 of 206.3
1311Flat glassYesYes11.3%7.1%3.9%4.0%2.9%3.0%1.6%15 of 207.1
1313Other finished glasswareYesYes5.0%4.5%1.7%2.8%3.3%2.2%1.4%16 of 203.5
132Concrete ingredients and related productsYesYes12.1%4.1%3.8%3.7%3.7%3.6%3.8%19 of 203.2
1321Construction sand, gravel, and crushed stoneYesYes11.9%4.1%4.4%4.1%3.9%3.6%4.1%20 of 202.9
1322Cement, hydraulicYesYes12.9%4.2%1.9%2.7%3.1%3.7%3.0%17 of 204.2
133Concrete productsYesYes13.7%8.4%2.7%4.6%4.0%3.6%3.5%18 of 203.9
1331Concrete block and brickYesYes14.3%5.1%3.2%3.8%3.5%2.8%3.0%18 of 204.8
1332Concrete pipeYesYes17.9%11.2%4.0%6.9%4.4%3.5%3.1%16 of 205.7
1333Ready-mix concreteYesYes11.5%7.4%2.3%4.0%3.6%3.6%3.6%18 of 203.2
1334Precast concrete productsYesYes12.3%10.0%4.7%5.7%5.3%3.9%3.7%19 of 203.4
1335Prestressed concrete productsYesYes31.5%14.5%-0.6%5.2%4.4%3.8%3.1%13 of 1910.3
134Clay construction products ex. refractoriesYesYes9.5%5.4%2.0%2.9%1.9%1.5%1.3%16 of 207.2
1342Brick and structural clay tileYesYes14.0%6.3%3.2%3.8%2.8%1.7%1.7%16 of 208.3
1344Clay floor and wall tile, glazed and unglazedYesYes4.6%4.4%0.6%1.9%0.3%1.1%0.1%16 of 2060.6
1345Structural clay products, n.e.c.YesYes7.9%5.8%3.1%3.6%4.1%3.3%3.5%19 of 202.2
135RefractoriesYesYes10.4%7.2%0.5%4.3%3.8%2.7%3.5%18 of 203.0
1352Clay refractoriesYesNo2.7%13.3%2.6%6.0%4.4%3.1%4.3%18 of 200.6
1353Nonclay refractoriesYesYes16.6%2.7%-1.1%2.9%3.3%2.4%2.8%18 of 205.9
136Asphalt felts and coatingsYesYes17.0%11.7%2.3%4.2%5.1%1.9%4.8%12 of 203.5
1361Prepared asphalt and tar roofing and siding productsYesYes18.0%12.4%2.6%4.6%5.2%2.4%5.0%13 of 203.6
1362Roofing asphalts, pitches, coatings, and cementYesYes9.5%6.8%-0.5%1.6%3.9%-1.4%3.3%13 of 202.9
137Gypsum productsYesYes16.7%20.2%3.7%6.1%6.0%6.9%4.4%15 of 203.8
1371Gypsum productsYesYes16.7%20.2%3.7%6.1%6.0%6.9%4.4%15 of 203.8
138Glass containersYesYes12.8%6.8%1.7%3.7%2.8%2.1%2.7%20 of 204.7
1381Glass containersYesYes12.8%6.8%1.7%3.7%2.8%2.1%2.7%20 of 204.7
139Other nonmetallic mineralsYesYes13.0%8.4%-0.5%2.6%2.5%1.9%3.3%16 of 204.0
1392Insulation materialsYesYes13.4%17.2%1.5%4.9%4.2%3.9%3.0%17 of 204.5
1394Paving mixtures and blocksYesYes18.5%8.8%-3.7%1.2%2.7%0.8%4.6%14 of 204.0
1395Cut stone and stone productsYesYes13.7%11.9%3.5%6.0%4.3%3.2%1.8%15 of 207.7
1398Gaskets, packing, and sealing devicesYesYes7.6%6.7%1.7%3.0%2.4%1.8%2.1%19 of 203.7
1399Nonmetallic minerals and products, n.e.c.YesYes9.8%3.4%-0.7%1.5%1.0%2.0%3.0%18 of 203.2
14Transportation equipmentYesYes4.3%3.9%0.9%1.7%1.5%1.3%1.4%20 of 203.0
141Motor vehicles and equipmentYesYes4.6%4.6%0.7%1.7%1.4%1.3%1.0%17 of 204.5
1411Motor vehiclesYesYes4.1%2.7%0.4%1.1%0.9%1.3%0.9%17 of 204.7
1412Motor vehicles partsYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
1413Truck and bus bodiesYesYes15.9%8.0%1.3%4.4%3.6%2.5%2.7%19 of 205.8
1414Truck trailersYesYes17.0%27.1%0.0%9.3%7.5%4.2%3.8%17 of 204.5
1415Motor homes, built on purchased chassisYesYes2.8%4.5%3.2%3.1%2.6%2.1%1.5%18 of 201.8
1416Travel trailers and campersYesYes7.9%21.7%3.9%9.1%7.0%4.6%3.6%19 of 202.2
142Aircraft and aircraft equipmentYesYes4.1%1.6%1.3%1.4%1.3%1.4%2.2%19 of 201.8
1421AircraftYesYes4.7%1.5%1.3%1.4%1.5%1.4%2.5%19 of 201.9
1423Aircraft engine and engine partsYesYes3.9%1.8%1.1%1.3%1.1%1.5%2.5%20 of 201.6
1425Other aircraft parts and equipmentYesYes2.7%1.6%1.3%1.5%1.1%1.3%1.4%17 of 201.9
143Ships and boatsYesYes4.9%5.2%1.3%3.2%2.4%1.8%2.7%20 of 201.9
1431ShipsYesYes2.1%4.0%0.7%2.5%1.5%0.8%2.4%17 of 200.9
1432BoatsYesYes11.1%7.7%2.5%4.8%4.1%3.2%2.9%20 of 203.9
144Railroad equipmentYesNo-1.1%5.1%0.3%2.2%1.3%1.2%2.4%15 of 20-0.5
149Transportation equipment, n.e.c.YesYes5.2%10.2%0.5%3.7%3.3%2.0%1.7%17 of 203.1
1491Transportation equipment, n.e.c.YesYes5.2%10.2%0.5%3.7%3.3%2.0%1.7%17 of 203.1
15Miscellaneous productsYesYes8.6%6.3%2.8%4.3%3.6%2.7%2.5%19 of 203.4
151Toys, sporting goods, small arms, etc.YesYes9.5%9.7%0.3%4.8%2.9%2.0%1.7%16 of 205.7
1511Toys, games, and children’s vehiclesYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%2.7%1.9%1.6%1.6%17 of 202.8
1512Sporting and athletic goodsYesYes15.0%15.1%-0.7%7.4%4.1%2.4%1.5%14 of 209.8
1513Small arms and ammunitionYesYes2.2%3.2%1.4%1.8%1.5%1.6%2.7%18 of 200.8
152Tobacco products, incl. stemmed & redriedYesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%6.8%6.3%5.5%4.3%18 of 202.6
1521Cigarettes, excluding electronicYesYes11.9%8.4%6.7%7.3%6.7%5.8%4.5%19 of 202.7
1524Stemmed and redried tobaccoYesYes3.3%0.6%1.1%0.5%1.1%0.3%0.1%11 of 2024.0
1525Other tobacco productsYesYes7.9%5.1%5.9%5.0%4.4%4.4%16 of 171.8
153NotionsYesYes6.4%12.6%0.6%4.8%3.6%2.2%3.1%18 of 202.0
1532Fasteners, zippers, buttons, needles, pins, and bucklesYesYes6.4%12.6%0.6%4.8%3.3%2.4%3.3%18 of 201.9
154Photographic equipment and suppliesYesYes7.7%7.2%-0.1%4.7%3.4%2.0%1.5%13 of 205.2
1541Photographic and photocopying equipmentYesYes7.7%7.0%5.0%4.4%3.0%1.6%1.3%15 of 206.1
1542Photographic suppliesYesYes8.8%7.3%-1.8%4.8%3.4%2.1%1.5%13 of 205.9
155Mobile homesYesYes6.8%30.1%8.6%15.4%11.0%6.8%5.2%20 of 201.3
1553Manufactured homes (mobile homes), all sizes (incl. multisection)YesYes6.8%30.1%8.6%15.4%11.0%6.8%5.2%20 of 201.3
156Medical, surgical & personal aid devicesYesYes4.0%1.3%1.1%1.3%1.2%1.0%1.1%20 of 203.5
1562Surgical and medical instrumentsYesYes3.6%0.5%1.1%0.4%0.4%0.5%0.6%14 of 206.3
1563Medical and surgical appliances and suppliesYesYes4.5%2.9%0.4%1.7%1.4%0.9%1.1%18 of 204.0
1564Ophthalmic goodsYesYes4.7%2.8%1.5%1.9%2.1%1.3%1.4%17 of 203.3
1565Dental equipment and suppliesYesYes3.3%-1.4%5.2%5.1%4.6%3.5%4.2%20 of 200.8
157Other industrial safety equipmentYesYes11.4%7.0%2.9%3.0%2.0%2.1%1.8%18 of 206.3
1571Personal safety equipment and clothingYesYes11.4%7.0%2.9%3.0%2.0%2.1%1.8%18 of 206.3
159Other miscellaneous productsYesYes13.2%8.7%2.1%5.4%4.0%2.2%2.3%18 of 205.8
1591Burial casketsYesYes6.7%11.0%-0.5%5.4%4.4%3.9%4.6%19 of 201.5
1593Musical instrumentsYesYes7.6%7.5%1.1%3.0%3.0%2.6%2.2%18 of 203.4
1594Jewelry and jewelry productsYesYes8.3%2.0%6.7%3.8%2.4%1.1%3.1%15 of 202.7
1595Pens, pencils, and marking devicesYesYes7.1%5.1%0.7%2.5%2.0%1.9%1.4%20 of 204.9
1597Brooms and brushesYesYes6.2%4.2%0.2%2.4%1.8%1.4%1.7%19 of 203.6
159AMiscellaneous products, n.e.c.YesYes16.1%11.9%1.4%7.0%5.4%2.9%2.2%16 of 207.2
159DReproduction of audio and video media and softwareYesYes18.3%8.6%0.5%3 of 3
Download 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List Here: 2022 Good LIFO Election Candidates List
NAICS PBA CodeNAICS PBA Ind. Desc.Good Candidate’22 Election Candidate11M 11/22 (YTD)12M 12/2112M 12/203Y Avg.5Y Avg.10Y Avg.20Y Avg.Infl. Freq. 02 – 21YTD vs. 20Y Avg. Infl Mult.
311110Animal food mfg.YesYes20.7%6.3%10.4%6.0%3.8%1.8%3.8%14 of 205.5
311111Dog and cat food manufacturingYesYes13.9%7.6%0.7%3.8%2.7%2.3%3.2%19 of 204.4
311119Other animal food manufacturingYesYes20.7%6.3%10.4%6.0%3.8%1.8%3.8%14 of 205.5
311200Grain & oilseed millingYesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
311211Flour millingYesYes17.7%19.9%1.3%6.7%4.5%1.7%3.5%14 of 205.1
311212Rice millingYesYes14.7%6.7%5.4%5.9%2.9%0.6%4.6%13 of 203.2
311213Malt manufacturingNoNo11.5%2.7%-1.3%0.9%-0.8%0.7%2.0%10 of 205.8
311221Wet corn millingYesYes50.7%6.0%17.6%6.2%5.6%0.3%4.0%11 of 1912.7
311224Soybean and other oilseed processingYesYes9.1%60.0%15.2%21.4%11.2%4.5%11 of 182.0
311225Fats and oils refining and blendingYesYes9.1%60.0%15.2%21.4%11.2%4.5%11 of 182.0
311230Breakfast cereal manufacturingYesYes12.7%10.0%0.1%3.4%2.6%1.1%2.5%15 of 205.1
311300Sugar & confectionery product mfg.YesYes9.1%3.1%-1.4%1.7%1.2%0.5%2.6%16 of 203.5
311313Beet sugar manufacturingYesNo9.5%5.6%3.6%4.6%5.0%-1.5%13 of 20-6.5
311314Cane sugar manufacturingYesYes6.3%6.1%5.8%5.4%3.5%0.8%16 of 208.3
311340Nonchocolate confectionery manufacturingYesYes11.5%3.2%2.3%2.4%2.4%1.4%2.4%19 of 204.9
311351Chocolate and confectionery mfg. from cacaoYesYes17.8%5.4%-4.4%2.7%2.1%-0.1%2.6%15 of 207.0
311352Confectionery mfg. from purchased chocolateYesYes9.7%-3.0%-0.9%0.0%0.4%0.9%2.5%19 of 203.9
311400Fruit & vegetable preserving & speciality food mfg.YesYes17.7%4.5%3.8%2.4%2.4%1.7%2.7%17 of 206.5
311411Frozen fruit and vegetable manufacturingYesNo-2.3%21.4%8.0%3.4%3.9%2.1%3.6%12 of 20-0.6
311412Frozen specialty food manufacturingYesYes17.1%3.4%0.6%1.2%0.5%0.6%1.4%14 of 2012.6
311421Fruit and vegetable canningYesYes14.8%4.3%4.4%1.9%0.8%1.8%2.6%16 of 205.8
311422Specialty canningYesYes22.8%7.2%-0.3%2.8%2.3%1.8%2.1%17 of 2011.0
311423Dried and dehydrated food manufacturingYesYes11.5%0.1%5.5%1.0%2.0%2.1%16 of 195.4
311500Dairy product mfg.YesYes13.9%7.6%-3.0%4.0%1.9%1.0%2.2%12 of 206.3
311511Fluid milk manufacturingYesYes16.6%6.6%-0.9%4.0%2.5%1.6%2.7%12 of 206.2
311512Creamery butter manufacturingYesYes44.6%40.7%-26.0%-3.1%-0.7%2.3%2.4%11 of 2018.8
311513Cheese manufacturingYesYes12.9%2.0%-5.1%3.7%0.4%0.2%1.8%11 of 207.4
311514Dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy productsYesYes2.8%18.5%4.1%7.9%4.7%0.0%1.9%14 of 201.5
311520Ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturingYesYes13.5%5.1%-1.9%2.0%1.8%1.4%2.1%18 of 206.5
311610Animal slaughtering & processingYesNo-0.4%20.0%2.7%9.2%4.8%2.7%3.3%15 of 20-0.1
311611Animal, except poultry, slaughteringYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%7.9%4.8%2.3%3.3%16 of 20-0.2
311612Meat processed from carcassesYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%7.9%4.8%2.3%3.3%16 of 20-0.2
311613Rendering and meat byproduct processingYesNo-0.8%14.9%3.4%7.9%4.8%2.3%3.3%16 of 20-0.2
311615Poultry processingYesYes4.5%26.5%2.2%10.8%3.9%2.8%2.6%15 of 201.7
311710Seafood product preparation & packagingYesNo-11.0%36.3%-0.5%13.1%7.1%5.2%5.1%13 of 20-2.1
311800Bakeries, tortilla & dry pasta mfg.YesYes15.5%9.2%0.1%3.2%2.7%1.5%2.8%16 of 205.6
311811Retail bakeriesYesYes11.3%10.5%0.9%4.7%4.8%8 of 82.4
311812Commercial bakeriesYesYes14.1%4.8%-1.1%1.4%1.9%1.6%2.4%19 of 205.9
311813Frozen cakes and other pastries manufacturingYesYes12.9%3.0%2.0%2.2%1.4%1.6%2.6%18 of 204.9
311821Cookie and cracker manufacturingYesYes7.5%1.4%0.3%0.7%0.8%0.5%1.5%16 of 205.0
311824Dry pasta, dough, and flour mixes manufacturing from purchased flourYesYes15.5%9.2%0.1%3.2%2.7%1.5%2.8%16 of 205.6
311830Tortilla manufacturingYesYes19.6%1.7%1.0%-2.8%1.3%1.3%1.9%16 of 2010.6
311900Other food mfg. (including coffee, tea, flavorings & seasonings)YesYes13.3%6.1%2.2%2.4%2.9%2.0%2.5%17 of 205.4
311911Roasted nuts and peanut butter manufacturingYesNo-1.1%5.0%-8.8%-1.1%-2.4%1.0%2.9%12 of 20-0.4
311919Other snack food manufacturingYesYes15.8%6.8%1.5%2.9%3.2%1.2%2.7%17 of 206.0
311920Coffee and tea manufacturingYesYes20.9%2.7%0.6%1.2%0.8%-1.6%2.5%14 of 208.5
311930Flavoring syrup and concentrate manufacturingYesYes19.3%4.0%4.1%3.9%2.8%2.2%1.5%17 of 2012.8
311941Mayonnaise, dressing, and sauce manufacturingYesYes13.9%15.7%0.1%5.4%3.4%1.7%2.9%15 of 204.8
311942Spice and extract manufacturingYesYes4.8%4.7%1.2%1.7%3.0%2.8%3.1%17 of 201.5
311991Perishable prepared food manufacturingYesYes19.6%1.7%1.0%-2.8%1.3%1.3%1.9%16 of 2010.6
311999All other miscellaneous food manufacturingYesYes13.3%6.1%2.2%2.4%2.9%2.0%2.5%17 of 205.4
312000Beverage & tobacco product mfg.YesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%6.8%6.3%5.5%4.3%18 of 202.6
312111Soft drink manufacturingYesYes13.5%8.5%2.9%5.3%3.9%3.2%11 of 114.3
312112Bottled water manufacturingYesYes17.1%5.6%3.6%3.2%1.0%0.1%10 of 19160.8
312113Ice manufacturingYesYes23.4%3.5%-0.6%2.3%1.8%1.4%2.6%17 of 209.0
312120BreweriesYesYes6.6%0.3%0.7%0.7%0.8%1.2%2.1%19 of 203.2
312130WineriesYesYes9.4%2.9%2.9%2.2%1.7%1.2%1.2%17 of 207.7
312140DistilleriesYesYes2.0%-5.2%3.3%-1.5%1.0%0.1%0.8%14 of 202.4
312230Tobacco manufacturingYesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%6.8%6.3%5.5%4.3%18 of 202.6
313000Textile millsYesYes8.3%15.4%-0.2%4.7%3.8%1.9%1.8%14 of 204.5
313110Fiber, yarn, and thread millsYesYes8.3%15.4%-0.2%4.7%3.8%1.9%1.8%14 of 204.5
313210Broadwoven fabric millsYesYes8.3%15.4%-0.2%4.7%3.8%1.9%1.8%14 of 204.5
313220Narrow fabric mills and schiffli embroideryYesYes13.8%13.5%0.6%4.8%4.2%3.8%2.8%19 of 204.9
313230Nonwoven fabric millsYesYes9.6%14.5%-2.3%4.3%3.2%1.8%1.8%12 of 205.3
313240Knit fabric millsYesYes9.4%10.0%1.8%5.1%3.6%2.0%1.7%17 of 205.5
313310Textile and fabric finishing millsYesYes8.3%15.4%-0.2%4.7%3.8%1.9%1.8%14 of 204.5
313320Fabric coating millsYesYes15.1%6.4%1.3%2.6%2.5%1.8%2.1%16 of 207.1
314000Textile product millsYesYes8.3%15.4%-0.2%4.7%3.8%1.9%1.8%14 of 204.5
314110Carpet and rug millsYesNo-0.9%8.7%0.1%2.7%3.0%1.9%2.6%15 of 20-0.4
314120Curtain and linen millsYesNo0.6%3.9%0.1%1.2%1.0%2.1%15 of 170.3
314910Textile bag and canvas millsYesYes6.1%11.8%1.7%5.3%3.6%2.5%2.0%17 of 203.0
314994Rope, twine, tire cord, and tire fabric millsYesNo3.4%18.4%5.6%6.7%3.9%7 of 100.9
314999All other miscellaneous textile product millsYesYes6.1%11.8%1.7%5.3%3.6%2.5%2.0%17 of 201.2
315000Apparel mfg.YesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
315110Hosiery and sock millsYesYes5.1%1.7%0.2%0.8%0.6%0.7%0.8%15 of 196.2
315190Other apparel knitting millsYesYes4.6%1.4%0.2%0.8%0.6%0.7%15 of 196.2
315210Cut and sew apparel contractorsYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
315220Men’s and boys’ cut and sew apparel manufacturingYesYes11.3%2.1%0.6%1.6%1.4%1.1%14 of 1910.6
315240Women’s, girls’, and infants’ cut and sew apparel manufacturingYesYes0.4%4.2%-4.7%-0.4%0.8%0.4%13 of 191.0
315280Other cut and sew apparel manufacturingYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
315990Accessories and other apparel manufacturingYesYes7.2%6.7%0.6%3.3%3.0%2.2%2.1%18 of 203.5
316110Leather & hide tanning & finishingNoNo-1.0%13.2%-0.6%2.6%-3.0%-2.3%0.3%11 of 20-3.6
316210Footwear manufacturingYesYes3.3%3.1%1.1%1.5%1.0%1.2%0.9%15 of 203.5
316990Other leather & allied product mfg.YesYes4.3%3.0%1.1%1.8%1.7%2.1%1.6%20 of 202.6
316992Women’s handbag and purse manufacturingYesNo0.0%0.5%1.2%0.4%1.9%1.9%2.0%15 of 200.0
316998All other leather and allied good mfg.YesYes6.8%5.6%1.3%2.8%1.9%3.3%2.4%19 of 202.8
321000Wood product mfg.YesNo-1.9%16.4%16.1%10.2%7.3%5.0%3.2%14 of 20-0.6
321113SawmillsYesNo-1.9%16.4%16.1%10.2%7.3%5.0%3.2%14 of 20-0.6
321114Wood preservationYesYes4.2%3.9%-4.3%-0.5%-0.2%1.9%2.4%14 of 201.8
321211Hardwood veneer and plywood manufacturingYesYes9.5%22.4%0.6%6.7%6.2%3.8%13 of 162.5
321212Softwood veneer and plywood manufacturingYesNo2.0%10.1%52.7%13.2%11.3%6.5%9 of 160.3
321213Engineered wood member manufacturingYesNo4.7%32.0%30.7%19.1%16.4%10.6%5.7%15 of 200.8
321214Truss manufacturingYesNo3.9%21.5%39.0%18.9%17.2%11.6%14 of 190.3
321219Reconstituted wood product manufacturingYesYes28.8%15.5%1.9%6.1%3.9%3.6%2.7%17 of 2010.6
321911Wood window and door manufacturingYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%5.9%4.5%3.5%2.5%19 of 204.3
321912Cut stock, resawing lumber, and planingYesNo-1.9%16.4%16.1%10.2%7.3%5.0%3.2%14 of 20-0.6
321918Other millwork, including flooringYesYes6.3%33.2%1.2%9.9%5.3%3.8%2.3%15 of 202.7
321920Wood container and pallet manufacturingYesYes5.7%32.8%2.6%12.4%9.9%6.2%3.9%16 of 201.5
321991Manufactured home, mobile home, manufacturingYesYes6.8%30.1%8.6%15.4%11.0%6.8%5.2%20 of 201.3
321992Prefabricated wood building manufacturingYesYes6.2%25.6%6.2%10.6%8.0%5.3%3.7%17 of 201.7
321999Miscellaneous wood product manufacturingYesYes3.4%3.0%2.8%2.1%2.2%1.7%13 of 152.0
322000Paper mfg.YesYes8.2%18.6%1.6%4.9%4.2%2.3%2.8%15 of 202.9
322110Pulp millsYesYes8.2%18.6%1.6%4.9%4.2%2.3%2.8%15 of 202.9
322121Paper, except newsprint, millsYesYes8.3%17.9%-1.9%4.4%4.4%1.8%2.3%12 of 203.6
322122Newsprint millsYesYes8.3%17.9%-1.9%4.4%4.4%1.8%2.3%12 of 203.6
322130Paperboard millsYesYes11.0%24.1%0.7%5.3%6.0%3.3%3.4%12 of 203.2
322211Corrugated and solid fiber box manufacturingYesYes9.3%17.9%1.2%6.2%5.6%4.0%4.3%18 of 202.1
322212Folding paperboard box manufacturingYesYes15.0%15.4%0.0%5.0%4.2%3.3%2.9%15 of 205.1
322219Other paperboard container manufacturingYesYes14.3%11.6%0.5%4.1%3.2%2.2%2.5%16 of 205.7
322220Paper bag and coated and treated paper manufacturingYesYes14.3%11.6%0.5%4.1%3.2%2.2%2.5%16 of 205.7
322230Stationery product manufacturingYesYes19.5%10.8%0.6%4.1%3.7%2.5%2.3%17 of 208.5
322291Sanitary paper product manufacturingYesYes18.6%3.4%-0.3%1.7%0.8%0.2%1.2%13 of 2015.8
322299All other converted paper product mfg.YesYes9.0%10.0%1.2%3.9%2.9%2.1%2.2%18 of 204.1
323100Printing & related support activitiesYesYes13.5%9.5%1.5%4.5%3.2%1.7%12 of 138.0
323113Commercial screen printingYesYes13.9%9.8%0.8%4.4%3.0%1.4%11 of 159.7
323117Books printingYesYes23.4%11.8%2.2%5.3%3.7%2.7%11 of 158.8
323120Support activities for printingYesYes13.5%9.5%1.5%4.5%3.2%1.7%12 of 138.0
324100Petroleum & coal products mfg.YesYes9.5%48.7%11.9%8.7%15.2%-1.9%9.0%13 of 201.1
324110Petroleum refineriesYesYes39.9%57.4%-15.3%11.8%10.8%-1.0%7.7%13 of 205.2
324121Asphalt paving mixture & block manufacturingYesYes18.5%8.8%-3.7%1.2%2.7%0.8%4.6%14 of 204.0
324122Asphalt shingle and coating materials manufacturingYesYes17.0%11.7%2.3%4.2%5.1%1.9%4.8%12 of 203.5
324191Petroleum lubricating oil and grease mfg.YesYes22.9%14.6%-0.6%5.3%5.4%1.6%6.6%14 of 203.5
324199All other petroleum and coal products mfg.NoNo8.9%39.4%28.7%9.8%15.8%-2.1%6 of 12-4.3
325100Basic chemical mfg.YesNo1.7%44.5%-3.1%9.3%7.3%0.9%5.3%12 of 200.3
325110Petrochemical manufacturingYesNo1.7%44.5%-3.1%9.3%7.3%0.9%5.3%12 of 200.3
325120Industrial gas manufacturingYesYes15.2%21.8%-2.1%10.0%6.7%5.4%4.2%16 of 203.6
325130Synthetic dye and pigment manufacturingYesYes22.2%10.1%0.3%5.3%4.8%0.1%2.4%15 of 209.3
325180Other basic inorganic chemical manufacturingYesYes17.4%9.2%0.0%3.2%4.2%-0.3%4.9%14 of 203.6
325193Ethyl alcohol manufacturingNoNo-15.0%94.5%1.2%31.8%12.0%1.5%4.4%9 of 19-3.4
325194Cyclic crude, intermediate, and gum and wood chemical mfgYesNo3.9%43.1%0.3%11.1%8.9%3.7%5.5%13 of 190.7
325199All other basic organic chemical manufacturingYesYes15.2%22.7%-1.6%3.4%4.6%1.7%4.3%15 of 203.5
325200Resin, synthetic rubber & artificial & synthetic fibers & filaments mfg.YesNo4.0%22.9%0.7%6.4%5.5%2.6%4.5%17 of 200.9
325211Plastics material and resins mfgYesNo-8.1%36.3%5.6%8.6%7.7%3.2%4.7%14 of 20-1.7
325212Synthetic rubber manufacturingYesYes5.1%19.8%0.1%4.0%3.4%-0.8%3.5%13 of 201.4
325220Artificial fibers and filaments manufacturingYesYes6.5%22.0%-3.0%5.4%5.5%2.5%1.9%11 of 203.5
325300Pesticide, fertilizer & other agricultural chemical mfg.YesYes42.8%6.4%-1.7%3.0%2.6%1.5%1.7%14 of 2025.5
325311Nitrogenous fertilizer manufacturingYesNo5.1%100.6%9.8%20.9%17.1%2.6%7.7%13 of 200.7
325312Phosphatic fertilizer manufacturingYesNo5.1%100.6%9.8%20.9%17.1%2.6%7.7%13 of 200.7
325314Fertilizer, mixing only, manufacturingYesYes14.2%36.2%4.6%9.7%8.2%2.1%4.0%13 of 203.5
325320Pesticide and other agricultural chemical manufacturingYesYes48.8%6.6%-2.2%3.1%2.8%1.5%6 of 1133.4
325410Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg.YesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%3.3%5.4%5.2%20 of 200.4
325411Medicinal and botanical manufacturingYesYes1.7%0.3%0.4%0.0%0.8%0.4%1.3%14 of 201.3
325412Pharmaceutical preparation manufacturingYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%3.3%5.4%5.2%20 of 200.4
325413In-vitro diagnostic substance manufacturingYesNo-2.0%15.1%2.8%5.8%3.5%3.1%8 of 13-0.6
325414Other biological product manufacturingYesNo0.6%9.6%2.4%5.2%3.3%2.9%2.8%18 of 200.2
325500Paint, coating & adhesive mfg.YesYes20.3%15.4%1.6%6.3%5.4%3.5%3.9%18 of 205.2
325510Paint and coating manufacturingYesYes20.3%15.4%1.6%6.3%5.4%3.5%3.9%18 of 205.2
325520Adhesive manufacturingYesYes17.4%11.5%1.5%4.5%3.9%2.2%3.3%18 of 205.3
325600Soap, cleaning compound & toilet preparation mfg.YesYes11.6%6.1%0.5%2.6%1.9%1.4%2.0%17 of 205.7
325611Soap and other detergent manufacturingYesYes11.6%6.1%0.5%2.6%1.9%1.4%2.0%17 of 205.7
325612Polish and other sanitation good mfg.YesYes6.3%4.2%1.0%3.1%3.9%2.5%2.2%17 of 202.9
325613Surface active agent manufacturingYesYes8.7%16.6%2.7%4.7%4.0%2.4%3.6%15 of 202.4
325620Toilet preparation manufacturingYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%0.9%1.0%1.1%1.1%17 of 206.0
325900Other chemical product & preparation mfg.YesYes10.4%11.3%-0.2%3.5%2.9%1.6%3.1%15 of 203.3
325910Printing ink manufacturingYesYes7.3%8.7%0.7%3.4%2.6%2.4%2.7%17 of 202.7
325920Explosives manufacturingYesYes14.5%5.7%-0.2%2.1%2.0%1.6%2.7%16 of 205.4
325991Custom compounding of purchased resinsYesNo0.1%24.4%-1.7%5.1%5.4%2.3%3.4%15 of 200.0
325992Photographic film and chemical manufacturingYesYes7.7%7.2%-0.1%4.7%3.4%2.0%1.5%13 of 205.2
325998Other miscellaneous chemical product manufacturingYesYes10.4%11.3%-0.2%3.5%2.9%1.6%3.1%15 of 203.3
326000Plastics & rubber products mfg.YesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%6.4%5.1%2.5%3.2%17 of 202.6
326111Plastics bag and pouch manufacturingYesYes4.2%19.8%2.9%6.7%4.5%2.6%3.8%16 of 201.1
326112Plastics packaging film and sheet mfg.YesYes7.6%24.1%0.7%7.2%5.7%3.1%3.3%16 of 202.3
326113Nonpackaging plastics film and sheet mfg.YesYes7.6%24.1%0.7%7.2%5.7%3.1%3.3%16 of 202.3
326121Unlaminated plastics profile shape manufacturingYesYes7.6%24.1%0.7%7.2%5.7%3.1%3.3%16 of 202.3
326122Plastics pipe and pipe fitting manufacturingYesYes10.2%33.3%6.4%12.3%8.7%4.9%4.6%17 of 202.2
326130Laminated plastics plate, sheet (except packaging), and shape manufacturingYesYes12.7%7.6%1.2%3.1%2.5%2.1%16 of 196.0
326140Polystyrene foam product manufacturingYesYes7.6%24.1%0.7%7.2%5.7%3.1%3.3%16 of 202.3
326150Urethane and other foam product mfg.YesYes7.6%24.1%0.7%7.2%5.7%3.1%3.3%16 of 202.3
326160Plastics bottle manufacturingYesYes10.5%16.5%-3.9%1.8%3.7%0.8%7 of 1313.1
326191Plastics plumbing fixture manufacturingYesYes4.2%20.2%2.6%7.5%5.6%3.2%15 of 171.3
326199All other plastics product manufacturingYesYes7.6%24.1%0.7%7.2%5.7%3.1%3.3%16 of 202.3
326211Tire manufacturing, except retreadingYesYes14.8%8.1%0.3%2.9%2.4%0.3%2.8%15 of 205.3
326220Rubber and plastics hose and belting mfg.YesNo0.4%13.2%0.5%5.3%4.2%2.7%3.5%18 of 200.1
326291Rubber product mfg. for mechanical useYesYes12.6%10.4%0.2%3.5%2.7%1.4%2.1%16 of 206.1
326299All other rubber product manufacturingYesYes12.6%10.4%0.2%3.5%2.7%1.4%2.1%16 of 206.1
327100Clay product & refractory mfg.YesYes9.5%5.4%2.0%2.9%1.9%1.5%1.3%16 of 207.2
327110Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture mfg.YesNo1.1%14.3%5.1%6.6%5.4%3.8%14 of 140.3
327120Clay building material and refractories mfg.YesYes14.0%6.3%3.2%3.8%2.8%1.7%1.7%16 of 208.3
327210Glass & glass product mfg.YesYes9.7%6.5%3.3%3.7%3.0%2.8%1.5%15 of 206.3
327211Flat glass manufacturingYesYes11.3%7.1%3.9%4.0%2.9%3.0%1.6%15 of 207.1
327212Other pressed and blown glass and glasswareYesNo5.0%4.5%1.7%2.8%3.3%2.2%1.4%16 of 203.5
327213Glass container manufacturingYesYes12.8%6.8%1.7%3.7%2.8%2.1%2.7%20 of 204.7
327215Glass product mfg. made of purchased glassYesYes5.0%4.5%1.7%2.8%3.3%2.2%1.4%16 of 203.5
327300Cement & concrete product mfg.YesYes13.7%8.4%2.7%4.6%4.0%3.6%3.5%18 of 203.9
327310Cement manufacturingYesYes12.9%4.2%1.9%2.7%3.1%3.7%3.0%17 of 204.2
327320Ready-mix concrete manufacturingYesYes11.5%7.4%2.3%4.0%3.6%3.6%3.6%18 of 203.2
327331Concrete block and brick manufacturingYesYes14.3%5.1%3.2%3.8%3.5%2.8%3.0%18 of 204.8
327332Concrete pipe manufacturingYesYes17.9%11.2%4.0%6.9%4.4%3.5%3.1%16 of 205.7
327390Other concrete product manufacturingYesYes13.7%8.4%2.7%4.6%4.0%3.6%3.5%18 of 203.9
327400Lime & gypsum product mfg.YesYes16.7%20.2%3.7%6.1%6.0%6.9%4.4%15 of 203.8
327410Lime manufacturingYesYes28.5%2.6%3.5%4.0%3.0%2.2%4.3%19 of 206.7
327420Gypsum product manufacturingYesYes18.1%21.9%4.9%6.3%6.0%7.2%4.1%14 of 194.4
327900Other nonmetallic mineral product mfg.YesYes13.0%8.4%-0.5%2.6%2.5%1.9%3.3%16 of 204.0
327910Abrasive product manufacturingYesYes17.5%6.5%2.3%4.2%3.3%2.1%2.0%17 of 208.8
327991Cut stone and stone product manufacturingYesYes13.7%11.9%3.5%6.0%4.3%3.2%1.8%15 of 207.7
327992Ground or treated minerals and earths mfg.YesYes10.1%2.8%-1.7%1.2%1.0%2.1%3.5%19 of 202.9
327993Mineral wool manufacturingYesYes14.3%20.5%2.3%5.2%4.5%4.6%3.4%16 of 204.2
327999All other miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturingYesYes13.0%8.4%-0.5%2.6%2.5%1.9%3.3%16 of 204.0
331000Primary metal mfg.YesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
331110Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy mfgYesNo-26.5%134.4%2.1%26.5%20.8%7.7%7.9%12 of 20-3.4
331210Iron and steel pipe and tube manufacturing from purchased steelYesNo1.2%24.4%5.3%8.7%6.6%3.2%7 of 110.4
331221Rolled steel shape mfgYesNo-49.6%229.9%0.1%41.7%27.9%11.6%10.1%13 of 20-4.9
331222Steel wire drawingYesYes13.3%37.8%-0.6%9.2%9.7%3.1%6.8%11 of 202.0
331313Alumina refining and primary aluminum productionYesNo-12.0%24.2%17.4%13.4%7.9%2.5%5.0%12 of 20-2.4
331314Secondary smelting and alloying of aluminumYesNo-0.7%51.3%30.5%16.1%11.8%3.6%3.6%11 of 20-0.2
331315Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil mfgNoNo-7.6%30.2%-2.0%7.0%7.7%3.1%2.6%9 of 20-2.9
331318Other aluminum rolling, drawing, and extrudingNoNo-7.6%30.2%-2.0%7.0%7.7%3.1%2.6%9 of 20-2.9
331410Nonferrous metal (except aluminum) smelting and refiningYesNo1.5%18.2%12.3%11.0%8.1%2.4%5.5%13 of 200.3
331420Copper rolling, drawing, extruding, and alloyingYesNo-5.0%27.1%19.4%14.8%9.6%3.3%7.1%11 of 20-0.7
331491Nonferrous metal (except copper and aluminum) rolling, drawing, and extrudingYesNo-4.3%26.1%3.3%8.5%7.5%2.6%3.5%12 of 20-1.2
331492Secondary smelting, refining, and alloying of nonferrous metal (except copper and aluminum)YesNo1.5%18.2%12.3%11.0%8.1%2.4%5.5%13 of 200.3
331511Iron foundriesYesYes13.3%12.2%3.0%4.7%3.3%1.8%2.9%15 of 204.6
331512Steel investment foundriesYesYes13.3%12.2%3.0%4.7%3.3%1.8%2.9%15 of 204.6
331513Steel foundries, except investmentYesYes13.3%12.2%3.0%4.7%3.3%1.8%2.9%15 of 204.6
331523Nonferrous metal die-casting foundriesYesYes11.4%12.9%2.7%4.2%3.4%1.5%2.7%15 of 204.3
331524Aluminum foundries, except die-castingYesYes11.4%12.9%2.7%4.2%3.4%1.5%2.7%15 of 204.3
331529Other nonferrous metal foundries, except die-castingYesYes11.4%12.9%2.7%4.2%3.4%1.5%2.7%15 of 204.3
332000Fabricated metal product mfg.YesYes6.6%41.6%2.2%13.0%9.7%4.9%4.5%17 of 201.5
332111Iron and steel forgingYesYes13.3%12.2%3.0%4.7%3.3%1.8%2.9%15 of 204.6
332112Nonferrous forgingNoNo7.8%7.4%1.0%3.5%2.3%0.6%1.0%9 of 198.2
332114Custom roll formingNoNo-4.9%108.6%-1.6%25.5%15.0%5.5%4.7%8 of 20-1.0
332117Powder metallurgy part mfgYesYes5.5%10.5%-0.2%3.8%3.2%1.3%1.5%15 of 203.6
332119Other metal stamping, except automotiveYesNo1.6%24.8%1.0%7.9%5.6%2.9%3.4%15 of 200.5
332215Metal cookware, cutlery, and flatware mfgYesYes5.0%9.8%2.6%4.5%3.2%2.1%1.8%20 of 202.8
332216Saw blade, handsaw, and hand and edge tool mfgYesYes7.4%4.7%2.5%3.2%2.8%1.9%2.1%19 of 203.6
332311Prefabricated metal buildings and components mfgYesNo-2.8%44.3%14.5%15.3%12.5%7.2%7.1%13 of 20-0.4
332312Fabricated structural metal mfgYesYes10.2%43.7%-0.9%12.6%10.6%5.3%4.4%16 of 202.3
332313Plate work mfgYesYes6.2%33.3%7.1%12.4%8.0%4.1%3.9%15 of 201.6
332321Metal window and door mfgYesYes10.2%38.6%2.9%13.2%10.1%5.6%4.3%18 of 202.4
332322Sheet metal work mfgYesYes6.9%36.9%-0.3%10.7%8.2%3.7%3.7%14 of 201.9
332323Ornamental and architectural metal work mfgYesYes8.7%54.7%5.0%17.1%13.3%7.1%6.4%16 of 201.4
332410Power boiler and heat exchanger mfgYesYes9.8%21.3%0.4%8.3%6.4%4.1%4.0%20 of 202.4
332420Metal tanks, heavy gauge, mfgYesYes10.8%34.8%4.5%13.4%8.0%4.3%4.0%14 of 202.7
332431Metal can mfgYesYes21.2%15.3%0.1%4.9%4.9%1.8%2.6%14 of 198.2
332439Other metal container mfgYesNo3.1%45.3%3.3%13.8%11.8%6.3%5.8%16 of 200.5
332510Hardware mfgYesYes4.9%17.5%1.8%6.6%5.0%2.9%2.8%18 of 201.8
332613Spring mfgYesYes6.8%13.0%0.1%4.5%3.8%1.7%2.0%15 of 203.4
332618Other fabricated wire product mfgYesYes13.9%29.9%1.2%8.7%8.6%4.2%4.8%16 of 202.9
332710Machine shopsYesYes4.9%4.9%0.1%2.1%2.1%1.3%1.9%19 of 202.6
332721Precision turned product mfgYesYes4.9%4.9%0.1%2.1%2.1%1.3%1.9%19 of 202.6
332722Bolt, nut, screw, rivet, and washer mfgYesYes15.0%16.6%4.4%8.5%6.0%3.3%3.5%17 of 204.3
332811Metal heat treatingYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
332812Metal coating and nonprecious engravingYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
332813Electroplating, anodizing and coloring metalYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
332911Industrial valve mfgYesYes15.0%4.9%2.8%3.2%3.6%3.2%4.1%20 of 203.6
332912Fluid power valve and hose fitting mfgYesYes11.4%8.7%1.1%4.0%3.3%2.4%3.0%20 of 203.7
332913Plumbing fixture fitting and trim mfgYesYes8.5%5.4%1.9%3.5%3.4%2.5%2.7%20 of 203.2
332919Other metal valve and pipe fitting mfgYesYes10.7%6.9%2.4%4.0%3.6%2.6%3.2%20 of 203.3
332991Ball and roller bearing mfgYesYes8.3%6.6%-0.3%3.8%3.4%2.2%2.9%18 of 202.8
332992Small arms ammunition mfgYesNo4.8%7.0%2.6%3.5%2.9%2.6%5.2%17 of 200.9
332993Ammunition, except small arms, manufacturingYesYes8.1%14.0%0.7%5.1%4.3%2.1%2.4%17 of 203.4
332996Fabricated pipe and pipe fitting mfgYesNo1.2%24.4%5.3%8.7%6.6%3.2%7 of 110.4
332999Miscellaneous fabricated metal product mfgYesNo2.6%22.3%1.7%6.7%6.4%2.9%2.8%16 of 200.9
333000Machinery mfg.YesYes8.8%7.1%1.0%3.2%2.6%1.5%1.2%16 of 207.6
333111Farm machinery and equipment mfgYesYes12.6%14.6%1.0%5.8%4.3%2.8%2.9%20 of 204.3
333112Lawn and garden equipment mfgYesYes8.4%5.3%0.7%2.5%2.1%1.2%1.0%15 of 208.7
333120Construction machinery mfgYesYes8.7%10.1%1.2%4.4%3.5%2.6%2.8%20 of 203.0
333131Mining machinery and equipment mfgYesYes11.4%14.3%2.3%6.9%5.9%4.1%4.4%20 of 202.6
333132Oil and gas field machinery and equipment mfgYesYes7.3%3.2%-0.4%1.0%0.7%0.6%2.6%17 of 202.8
333241Food product machinery mfgYesYes10.0%7.1%2.7%4.0%3.5%2.9%3.0%20 of 203.4
333242Semiconductor machinery mfgNoNo6.9%-1.4%2.8%1.2%-0.1%-0.8%6 of 15-9.0
333243Sawmill, woodworking and paper machinery mfgYesYes10.4%9.5%2.3%3.9%4.9%4.2%3.0%18 of 203.5
333244Printing machinery and equipment mfgNoNo-0.1%6.2%-2.8%0.7%0.7%-0.3%6 of 130.3
333249Other industrial machinery mfgYesYes11.2%16.5%4.0%7.6%5.0%2.5%1.6%16 of 207.1
333314Optical instrument and lens mfgYesYes2.8%2.7%0.6%1.2%1.1%0.6%0.7%13 of 204.3
333316Photographic and photocopying equipment mfgYesYes7.7%7.2%-0.1%4.7%3.4%2.0%1.5%13 of 205.2
333318Other commercial and service industry machinery mfgYesYes10.6%11.6%2.1%5.1%3.7%2.3%2.0%19 of 205.4
333413Fan, blower, air purification equipment mfgYesYes12.7%18.6%1.0%6.7%5.3%3.6%19 of 193.5
333414Heating equipment (except warm air furnaces) mfgYesYes9.8%21.3%0.4%8.3%6.4%4.1%4.0%20 of 202.4
333415Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and forced air heating equipment mfgYesYes18.3%14.7%2.6%6.7%5.4%3.3%2.8%19 of 206.5
333511Industrial mold mfgYesYes11.1%5.4%-2.1%0.9%0.6%0.5%0.3%13 of 2033.7
333514Special tool, die, jig, and fixture mfgYesYes5.2%6.9%-1.1%2.1%2.5%1.4%1.0%16 of 205.1
333515Cutting tool and machine tool accessory mfgYesYes5.0%4.1%0.9%2.1%2.0%1.4%1.8%20 of 202.8
333517Machine tool mfgYesYes7.6%7.3%0.7%3.1%2.7%1.9%1.8%19 of 204.3
333519Rolling mill and other metalworking machinery mfgYesYes7.6%7.3%0.7%3.1%2.7%1.9%1.8%19 of 204.3
333611Turbine and turbine generator set units mfgYesYes2.2%3.4%3.5%3.5%1.2%2.2%14 of 191.0
333612Speed changer, drive, and gear mfgYesYes14.9%7.1%1.6%3.2%3.2%2.2%3.0%19 of 205.1
333613Mechanical power transmission equipment mfgYesYes14.6%8.0%1.7%3.8%3.4%2.3%3.1%18 of 204.7
333618Other engine equipment mfgYesYes6.9%2.0%1.1%1.3%1.3%0.5%1.0%16 of 207.1
333912Air and gas compressor mfgYesYes21.3%9.4%1.3%4.6%4.8%3.4%16 of 176.3
333914Measuring, dispensing, and other pumping equipment mfgYesYes16.0%7.6%0.7%3.1%3.2%2.6%3.1%20 of 205.2
333921Elevator and moving stairway mfgYesYes5.0%16.7%0.9%7.1%5.3%3.4%2.4%16 of 202.1
333922Conveyor and conveying equipment mfgYesYes8.8%15.2%2.3%6.4%4.9%3.3%3.1%18 of 202.8
333923Overhead cranes, hoists and monorail systems mfgYesYes12.8%16.9%0.7%6.8%5.2%3.6%3.6%19 of 203.6
333924Industrial truck, trailer, and stacker mfgYesYes10.2%12.4%1.5%4.7%4.2%3.3%3.4%20 of 203.0
333991Power-driven handtool mfgYesYes6.1%9.9%2.4%4.6%3.3%2.6%16 of 182.3
333992Welding and soldering equipment mfgYesYes7.1%13.5%1.2%5.3%4.9%3.3%3.7%19 of 201.9
333993Packaging machinery mfgYesYes9.7%9.9%-1.6%3.0%2.8%2.6%14 of 153.7
333994Industrial process furnace and oven mfgYesYes9.8%7.4%2.4%4.1%3.1%2.4%18 of 184.1
333995Fluid power cylinder and actuator mfgYesYes12.4%13.4%0.6%5.5%4.6%2.8%3.0%20 of 204.2
333996Fluid power pump and motor mfgYesYes7.3%5.0%0.8%2.3%2.2%1.9%2.5%20 of 203.0
333997Scale and balance mfgYesYes9.5%11.9%1.1%4.8%5.3%3.9%2.9%20 of 203.2
333999All other miscellaneous general purpose machinery mfgYesYes6.2%5.9%0.4%3.2%2.3%1.9%2.0%18 of 203.1
334000Computer & electronic product mfg.NoNo3.7%4.3%-3.4%-0.9%-1.0%-2.4%-5.1%2 of 20-0.7
334111Electronic computer manufacturingNoNo-1.0%15.7%-5.8%-0.8%-2.6%-4.2%-11.0%2 of 200.1
334112Computer storage device mfgNoNo4.2%3.1%-3.7%1.5%0.4%-0.4%-8.0%5 of 20-0.5
334118Computer terminal and other computer peripheral equipment mfgNoNo3.7%4.3%-3.4%-0.9%-1.0%-2.4%-5.1%2 of 20-0.7
334210Telephone apparatus mfgNoNo8.1%-0.3%0.7%0.1%-0.1%-0.4%-1.1%6 of 20-7.2
334220Broadcast and wireless communications equipment mfgYesYes4.6%3.6%2.6%3.3%2.6%1.6%0.6%15 of 207.2
334290Other communications equipment mfgYesYes4.6%3.6%2.6%3.3%2.6%1.6%0.6%15 of 207.2
334310Audio and video equipment mfgNoNo7.0%8.8%0.8%3.9%2.3%1.0%-0.9%9 of 20-7.4
334412Bare printed circuit board mfgYesYes7.0%4.4%1.6%2.0%1.3%0.9%0.6%9 of 1711.4
334413Semiconductors and related device mfgNoNo3.4%1.9%1.3%0.3%-0.5%-1.2%3 of 17-2.9
334417Electronic connector mfgYesYes15.1%3.7%2.7%2.7%2.7%2.0%1.8%19 of 208.5
334418Printed circuit assembly mfgNoNo-3.3%1.8%-1.6%0.0%-0.2%0.2%-0.5%5 of 207.0
334419Other electronic component mfgNoNo4.4%2.1%-2.6%0.2%-0.4%-0.8%-1.8%5 of 20-2.5
334510Electromedical apparatus mfgNoNo3.3%0.2%1.5%0.7%0.4%0.0%6 of 13-1854.3
334511Search, detection, and navigation instrumentsYesNo2.5%4.4%4.4%5.0%4.3%7 of 70.6
334512Automatic environmental control mfgYesYes4.9%7.6%-1.5%3.3%3.2%1.9%1.5%17 of 203.2
334513Industrial process variable instrumentsYesYes12.9%2.9%3.2%2.1%1.7%1.7%2.2%20 of 205.8
334514Totalizing fluid meters and counting devicesYesYes12.7%5.7%0.5%2.9%2.9%2.9%2.6%20 of 204.8
334515Electricity and signal testing instruments mfgYesYes3.9%-0.2%-0.1%0.2%-0.1%0.4%0.7%14 of 205.4
334516Analytical laboratory instrument mfgYesYes6.9%2.1%0.9%2.0%1.9%1.6%1.4%20 of 204.9
334517Irradiation apparatus mfgYesYes8.1%-0.6%-2.3%-1.0%-0.4%-0.3%0.2%10 of 1839.1
334519Other measuring and controlling device mfgYesYes12.9%2.7%0.4%2.0%1.7%1.4%1.1%16 of 2012.0
334610Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical mediaYesYes13.2%8.7%2.1%5.4%4.0%2.2%2.3%18 of 205.8
335000Electrical equipment, appliance & component mfg.YesYes6.8%5.2%0.6%2.3%1.9%0.9%0.3%11 of 2023.1
335110Electric lamp bulb and part mfgNoNo7.3%3.6%-0.1%-8.8%-4.3%-3.6%-1.5%9 of 20-4.9
335121Residential electric lighting fixture mfgYesNo2.5%18.1%-2.9%7.1%5.6%3.3%2.6%16 of 200.9
335122Nonresidential electric lighting fixture mfgYesYes6.8%7.4%1.7%3.9%3.7%2.3%2.0%20 of 203.4
335129Other lighting equipment mfgYesYes7.6%4.4%1.4%2.6%2.2%1.6%1.4%18 of 205.4
335210Small electrical appliance mfgYesYes8.7%7.4%-0.3%3.0%2.6%0.8%1.0%15 of 208.4
335220Major household appliance mfgYesYes5.8%8.5%2.5%4.6%3.9%2.0%1.4%14 of 204.2
335311Electric power and specialty transformer mfgYesYes12.4%35.0%0.8%11.1%8.7%4.0%3.7%14 of 203.3
335312Motor and generator mfgYesYes10.7%12.1%0.1%4.4%3.6%1.9%2.7%17 of 203.9
335313Switchgear and switchboard apparatus mfgYesYes21.3%11.6%1.8%5.6%4.2%2.0%15 of 1710.6
335314Relay and industrial control mfgYesYes2.2%1.3%2.4%1.5%1.1%0.6%2.1%16 of 191.0
335911Storage battery mfgYesYes8.3%10.8%-1.4%2.6%4.0%2.3%3.8%16 of 202.2
335912Primary battery mfgYesYes12.9%3.2%0.2%2.6%1.4%1.1%12 of 1812.3
335921Fiber optic cable mfgNoNo16.6%3.4%-2.6%0.0%-0.1%-0.4%-2.8%5 of 20-6.0
335929Other communication and energy wire mfgYesNo1.1%30.3%8.0%11.4%8.2%2.3%4.6%12 of 200.2
335931Current-carrying wiring device mfgYesYes6.9%9.5%1.8%4.0%2.8%1.6%2.2%17 of 203.1
335932Noncurrent-carrying wiring device mfgYesYes14.0%38.8%10.2%16.3%10.5%5.5%5.1%16 of 202.7
335991Carbon and graphite product mfgYesYes22.6%-16.9%1.0%-15.2%5.8%1.6%2.5%12 of 208.9
335999Miscellaneous electrical equipment mfgYesYes6.8%5.2%0.6%2.3%1.9%0.9%0.3%11 of 2023.1
336000Transportation equipment mfg.YesYes4.6%4.6%0.7%1.7%1.4%1.3%1.0%17 of 204.5
336110Automobile, light truck and utility vehicle mfgYesYes2.0%2.1%1.1%1.2%0.6%0.6%0.3%12 of 206.6
336120Heavy duty truck mfgYesYes1.9%1.4%1.2%1.1%1.3%1.7%16 of 161.1
336211Motor vehicle body mfgYesYes4.6%4.6%0.7%1.7%1.4%1.3%1.0%17 of 204.5
336212Truck trailer mfgYesYes17.0%27.1%0.0%9.3%7.5%4.2%3.8%17 of 204.5
336213Motor home mfgYesYes2.8%4.5%3.2%3.1%2.6%2.1%1.5%18 of 201.8
336214Travel trailer and camper mfgYesYes7.9%21.7%3.9%9.1%7.0%4.6%3.6%19 of 202.2
336310Motor vehicle gasoline engine and engine parts mfgYesYes6.9%2.0%1.1%1.3%1.3%0.5%1.0%16 of 207.1
336320Motor vehicle electrical and electronic equipment mfgYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
336330Motor vehicle steering and suspension components (except spring) manufacturingYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
336340Motor vehicle brake system mfgYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
336350Motor vehicle transmission and power train parts manufacturingYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
336360Motor vehicle seating and interior trim mfgYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
336370Motor vehicle metal stampingNoNo3.8%6.3%-1.1%1.8%1.2%4 of 93.2
336390Other motor vehicle parts mfgYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
336411Aircraft mfgYesYes4.7%1.5%1.3%1.4%1.5%1.4%2.5%19 of 201.9
336412Aircraft engine and engine parts mfgYesYes3.9%1.8%1.1%1.3%1.1%1.5%2.5%20 of 201.6
336413Other aircraft parts and equipment mfgYesYes2.7%1.6%1.3%1.5%1.1%1.3%1.4%17 of 201.9
336510Railroad rolling stock mfgYesNo-1.1%5.1%0.3%2.2%1.3%1.2%2.4%15 of 20-0.5
336611Ship building and repairingYesNo2.1%4.0%0.7%2.5%1.5%0.8%2.4%17 of 200.9
336612Boat buildingYesYes11.1%7.7%2.5%4.8%4.1%3.2%2.9%20 of 203.9
336991Motorcycle, bicycle, and parts mfgYesYes5.4%2.7%2.4%5.9%4.4%2.4%1.7%14 of 193.2
336999All other transportation equipment mfgYesYes6.4%3.5%-0.1%1.3%1.1%0.6%0.5%14 of 1911.6
337000Furniture & related product mfg.YesYes7.4%10.9%1.6%4.7%3.9%2.4%2.1%20 of 203.6
337110Wood kitchen cabinet and countertop mfgYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%5.9%4.5%3.5%2.5%19 of 204.3
337121Upholstered household furniture mfgYesYes9.9%16.1%1.1%5.8%4.3%2.7%2.3%19 of 204.3
337122Nonupholstered wood household furniture mfgYesYes6.5%12.0%1.5%5.0%3.4%2.6%2.4%20 of 202.7
337124Metal household furniture mfgYesNo-2.3%26.6%-7.5%11.5%6.5%4.2%2.9%13 of 20-0.8
337125Household furniture, except wood or metal, mfgYesYes6.7%13.3%0.9%5.4%4.3%2.7%2.5%19 of 202.7
337127Institutional furniture mfgYesYes12.5%12.5%1.9%5.5%4.8%2.9%2.7%18 of 204.7
337211Wood office furniture mfgYesYes11.7%10.7%0.6%4.6%3.7%2.6%2.0%20 of 205.7
337212Custom architectural woodwork and millworkYesYes10.8%13.7%2.8%5.9%4.5%3.5%2.5%19 of 204.3
337214Office furniture, except wood, mfgYesYes12.4%13.1%3.0%5.8%5.6%3.0%2.9%17 of 204.3
337215Showcases, partitions, shelving, and lockers mfgYesYes11.2%15.8%2.4%7.7%4.6%3.4%2.8%18 of 204.1
337910Mattress mfgYesNo0.5%2.6%1.1%2.3%3.8%2.1%14 of 190.2
337920Blind and shade mfgYesYes32.0%11.1%2.2%5.3%3.3%2.5%2.1%16 of 2015.6
339110Medical equipment & supplies mfg.YesYes4.0%1.3%1.1%1.3%1.2%1.0%1.1%20 of 203.5
339112Surgical and medical instrument mfgYesYes3.6%0.5%1.1%0.4%0.4%0.5%0.6%14 of 206.3
339113Surgical appliance and supplies mfgYesYes4.5%2.9%0.4%1.7%1.4%0.9%1.1%18 of 204.0
339114Dental equipment and supplies mfgYesNo3.3%-1.4%5.2%5.1%4.6%3.5%4.2%20 of 200.8
339115Ophthalmic goods mfgYesYes4.7%2.8%1.5%1.9%2.1%1.3%1.4%17 of 203.3
339900Other miscellaneous mfg.YesYes13.2%8.7%2.1%5.4%4.0%2.2%2.3%18 of 205.8
339910Jewelry and silverware mfgYesYes8.3%2.0%6.7%3.8%2.4%1.1%3.1%15 of 202.7
339920Sporting and athletic goods mfgYesYes15.0%15.1%-0.7%7.4%4.1%2.4%1.5%14 of 209.8
339930Doll, toy, and game mfgYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%2.7%1.9%1.6%1.6%17 of 202.8
339940Office supplies, except paper, mfgYesYes19.5%10.8%0.6%4.1%3.7%2.5%2.3%17 of 208.5
339950Sign mfgYesYes15.8%7.8%0.7%3.2%3.4%2.2%1.6%17 of 209.9
339991Gasket, packing, and sealing device mfgYesYes7.6%6.7%1.7%3.0%2.4%1.8%2.1%19 of 203.7
339992Musical instrument mfgYesYes7.6%7.5%1.1%3.0%3.0%2.6%2.2%18 of 203.4
339993Fastener, button, needle, and pin mfgYesYes6.4%12.6%0.6%4.8%3.3%2.4%3.3%18 of 201.9
339994Broom, brush, and mop mfgYesYes6.7%6.3%0.4%4.8%3.1%2.2%2.2%20 of 203.0
339995Burial casket mfgYesYes6.7%11.0%-0.5%5.4%4.4%3.9%4.6%19 of 201.5
339999All other miscellaneous mfgYesYes16.1%11.9%1.4%7.0%5.4%2.9%2.2%16 of 207.2
423100Motor vehicle and parts merchant wholesalersYesYes4.6%4.6%0.7%1.7%1.4%1.3%1.0%17 of 204.5
423200Furniture & home furnishingYesYes6.7%13.3%0.9%5.4%4.3%2.7%2.5%19 of 202.7
423300Lumber & other construction materialsYesNo-1.9%16.4%16.1%10.2%7.3%5.0%3.2%14 of 20-0.6
423400Professional & commercial equipment & suppliesYesYes8.8%7.1%1.0%3.2%2.6%1.5%1.2%16 of 207.6
423500Metal and mineral (except petroleum) merchant wholesalersYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
423600Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalersYesYes6.4%8.3%1.9%4.4%3.7%1.9%1.3%13 of 204.9
423700Hardware, plumbing, and heating equipment and supplies merchant wholesalersYesYes4.9%17.5%1.8%6.6%5.0%2.9%2.8%18 of 201.8
423800Machinery and supply merchant wholesalersYesYes8.8%7.1%1.0%3.2%2.6%1.5%1.2%16 of 207.6
423900Miscellaneous durable goods, except recyclable material, merchant wholesalersYesYes8.8%7.1%1.0%3.2%2.6%1.5%1.2%16 of 207.6
423910Sporting & recreational goods & suppliesYesYes15.0%15.1%-0.7%7.4%4.1%2.4%1.5%14 of 209.8
423920Toy & hobby goods & suppliesYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%2.7%1.9%1.6%1.6%17 of 202.8
423930Recyclable materialsYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
423940Jewelry, watch, precious stone & precious metalsYesYes8.3%2.0%6.7%3.8%2.4%1.1%3.1%15 of 202.7
423990Other miscellaneous durable goodsTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD
424100Paper and paper product merchant wholesalersYesYes8.2%18.6%1.6%4.9%4.2%2.3%2.8%15 of 202.9
424200Drugs and druggists’ sundries merchant wholesalersYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%3.3%5.4%5.2%20 of 200.4
424210Drugs & druggists’ sundriesYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%3.3%5.4%5.2%20 of 200.4
424300Apparel and piece goods merchant wholesalersYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
424400Grocery and related product merchant wholesalersYesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
424500Farm product raw material merchant wholesalersYesYes25.0%23.9%3.1%8.0%6.8%1.5%4.0%14 of 206.3
424600Chemicals and allied products merchant wholesalersYesNo4.0%22.9%0.7%6.4%5.5%2.6%4.5%17 of 200.9
424700Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalersYesYes39.9%57.4%-15.3%11.8%10.8%-1.0%7.7%13 of 205.2
424800Beer, wine, and distilled alcoholic beverage merchant wholesalersYesYes6.3%-0.4%1.9%0.5%1.1%1.0%1.7%18 of 203.8
424900Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalersYesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%6.4%5.1%2.5%3.2%17 of 202.6
424920Books, periodicals & newspapersYesYes13.5%9.5%1.5%4.5%3.2%1.7%12 of 138.0
424930Flower, nursery stock & florists’ suppliesYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%11.9%8.7%4.6%3.2%19 of 206.4
424940Tobacco & tobacco productsYesYes11.2%7.7%6.4%6.8%6.3%5.5%4.3%18 of 202.6
424950Paint, varnish & suppliesYesYes19.9%13.9%1.4%6.0%5.1%2.7%3.9%17 of 205.1
424990Other miscellaneous nondurable goodsTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD
425120Wholesale trade agents and brokersYesYes16.1%11.9%1.4%7.0%5.4%2.9%2.2%16 of 207.2
429930Material recyclersYesNo-6.9%43.3%6.7%13.6%10.7%4.1%5.1%13 of 20-1.4
441110New car dealersYesYes6.2%3.5%-0.2%1.0%0.9%1.6%0.9%15 of 206.7
441120Used car dealersYesYes6.2%3.5%-0.2%1.0%0.9%1.6%0.9%15 of 206.7
441210Recreational vehicle dealers (including motor home & travel trailer dealers)YesYes7.9%21.7%3.9%9.1%7.0%4.6%3.6%19 of 202.2
441222Boat dealersYesYes11.1%7.7%2.5%4.8%4.1%3.2%2.9%20 of 203.9
441228Motorcycle, ATV & all other motor vehicle dealersYesYes2.4%0.0%-0.1%0.2%0.3%0.7%11 of 153.4
441300Automotive parts, accessories & tire storesYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
441310Automotive parts and accessories storesYesYes3.5%5.3%0.8%1.7%1.5%0.8%0.9%15 of 203.8
441320Tire dealersYesYes14.8%8.1%0.3%2.9%2.4%0.3%2.8%15 of 205.3
442110Furniture storesYesYes6.7%13.3%0.9%5.4%4.3%2.7%2.5%19 of 202.7
442200Home furnishings storesYesYes7.4%10.9%1.6%4.7%3.9%2.4%2.1%20 of 203.6
442210Floor covering storesYesNo-0.2%7.4%0.3%2.5%2.8%1.7%2.5%15 of 20-0.1
443100Electronics and appliance storesYesYes7.4%10.9%1.6%4.7%3.9%2.4%2.1%20 of 203.6
443141Household appliance storesYesYes6.4%8.3%1.9%4.4%3.7%1.9%1.3%13 of 204.9
443142Electronics stores (including audio, video, computer & camera stores)NoNo7.0%8.8%0.8%3.9%2.3%1.0%-0.9%9 of 20-7.4
444100Building materials and supplies dealersYesNo-1.9%16.4%16.1%10.2%7.3%5.0%3.2%14 of 20-0.6
444120Paint & wallpaper storesYesYes19.9%13.9%1.4%6.0%5.1%2.7%3.9%17 of 205.1
444130Hardware storesYesYes4.9%17.5%1.8%6.6%5.0%2.9%2.8%18 of 201.8
444190Other building materials dealersYesNo-8.9%13.6%60.7%22.5%12.5%8.5%5.6%11 of 20-1.6
444200Lawn & garden equipment & supplies storesYesYes8.4%5.3%0.7%2.5%2.1%1.2%1.0%15 of 208.7
444220Nursery, garden, and farm supply storesYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%11.9%8.7%4.6%3.2%19 of 206.4
445100Grocery stores (including supermarkets & convenience stores without gas)YesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
445110Supermarkets and other grocery storesYesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
445200Specialty food storesYesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
445210Meat marketsYesNo-0.4%20.0%2.7%9.2%4.8%2.7%3.3%15 of 20-0.1
445220Fish & seafood marketsYesNo-11.0%36.3%-0.5%13.1%7.1%5.2%5.1%13 of 20-2.1
445230Fruit & vegetable marketsYesYes55.3%9.4%-4.5%-5.5%5.6%3.4%3.2%14 of 2017.3
445290Other specialty food storesYesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
445310Beer, wine, and liquor storesYesYes6.3%-0.4%1.9%0.5%1.1%1.0%1.7%18 of 203.8
446110Pharmacies and drug storesYesNo2.2%1.3%1.8%1.8%3.3%5.4%5.2%20 of 200.4
446120Cosmetics, beauty supplies & perfume storesYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%0.9%1.0%1.1%1.1%17 of 206.0
446130Optical goods storesYesYes4.7%2.8%1.5%1.9%2.1%1.3%1.4%17 of 203.3
446190Other health & personal care storesYesYes6.4%1.8%-0.2%0.9%1.0%1.1%1.1%17 of 206.0
446191Food (health) supplement storesYesYes5.3%1.3%0.1%0.7%1.0%1.8%1.7%19 of 203.2
447100Gasoline stations (including convenience stores with gas)YesYes17.1%67.0%-23.1%13.6%8.3%-1.7%7.1%13 of 202.4
448100Clothing storesYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
448110Men’s clothing storesYesYes11.3%2.1%0.6%1.6%1.4%1.1%14 of 1910.6
448120Women’s clothing storesYesYes0.4%4.2%-4.7%-0.4%0.8%0.4%13 of 191.0
448130Children’s & infants’ clothing storesYesYes11.3%2.1%0.6%1.6%1.4%1.1%14 of 1910.6
448140Family clothing storesYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
448150Clothing accessories storesYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
448190Other clothing storesYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
448210Shoe storesYesYes3.3%3.1%1.1%1.5%1.0%1.2%0.9%15 of 203.5
448310Jewelry storesYesYes8.3%2.0%6.7%3.8%2.4%1.1%3.1%15 of 202.7
448320Luggage & leather goods storesYesYes4.3%3.0%1.1%1.8%1.7%2.1%1.6%20 of 202.6
451110Sporting goods storesYesYes15.0%15.1%-0.7%7.4%4.1%2.4%1.5%14 of 209.8
451120Hobby, toy & game storesYesYes4.5%6.0%1.7%2.7%1.9%1.6%1.6%17 of 202.8
451130Sewing, needlework & piece goods storesYesYes6.4%12.6%0.6%4.8%3.6%2.2%3.1%18 of 202.0
451140Musical instrument & supplies storesYesYes7.6%7.5%1.1%3.0%3.0%2.6%2.2%18 of 203.4
451211Book storesYesYes23.4%11.8%2.2%5.3%3.7%2.7%11 of 158.8
451212News dealers & newsstandsYesYes13.5%9.5%1.5%4.5%3.2%1.7%12 of 138.0
452210Department storesYesYes4.7%3.9%-1.8%0.9%1.3%0.9%0.8%15 of 205.7
452310Other general merchandise storesYesYes8.4%21.1%0.6%6.4%5.1%2.5%3.2%17 of 202.6
453110FloristsYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%11.9%8.7%4.6%3.2%19 of 206.4
453200Office supplies, stationery, and gift storesYesYes19.5%10.8%0.6%4.1%3.7%2.5%2.3%17 of 208.5
453210Office supplies & stationery storesYesYes19.5%10.8%0.6%4.1%3.7%2.5%2.3%17 of 208.5
453220Gift, novelty & souvenir storesYesYes16.1%11.9%1.4%7.0%5.4%2.9%2.2%16 of 207.2
453310Used merchandise storesYesYes16.1%11.9%1.4%7.0%5.4%2.9%2.2%16 of 207.2
453910Pet & pet supplies storesYesYes13.9%7.6%0.7%3.8%2.7%2.3%3.2%19 of 204.4
453920Art dealersYesYes20.3%7.4%0.7%11.9%8.7%4.6%3.2%19 of 206.4
453930Manufactured (mobile) home dealersYesYes6.8%30.1%8.6%15.4%11.0%6.8%5.2%20 of 201.3
453990All other miscellaneous store retailers (including tobacco, candle & trophy shops)TBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD
454110Electronic shopping and mail-order housesYesYes16.1%11.9%1.4%7.0%5.4%2.9%2.2%16 of 207.2
454210Vending machine operatorsYesYes10.7%10.4%2.0%4.9%3.2%1.7%2.8%17 of 203.8
454310Fuel dealersYesYes17.1%67.0%-23.1%13.6%8.3%-1.7%7.1%13 of 202.4
454390Other direct selling establishmentsTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBDTBD

2022 Inflation Environment & Historical Comparisons – BLS PPI

2022 Inflation Environment & Historical Comparisons – BLS CPI

  • 2022 inflation will likely be well or far above historical averages in many industries, which will create some of the best LIFO tax deferral/savings opportunities seen in 4-5 decades.
  • When compared to a normal inflation period, many years worth of LIFO tax benefits can be obtained in a single year by electing in 2022
  • One of the best possible times to elect LIFO is in a year with above-average or record high inflation because it greatly increases the probability of the year one LIFO reserve being much larger than the sum of any future LIFO recapture (taxable income) that could potentially be created during deflationary periods. See example below.
  • Election Requirements
    • LIFO Conformity Rule: Must value inventory using LIFO on financial statements beginning with the same period LIFO is elected & reported on the tax return. Amount initially reported on financial statement DOES NOT NEED TO BE THE FINAL figure & CAN BE AN ESTIMATED FIGURE CALCULATED PRIOR TO YEAR END (although financial statements must show inventory & income reported under LIFO, disclosures can be made in notes to financial statements to present amounts such as ending inventory and income using non-LIFO method for comparative purposes)
    • Election scope or the goods to be valued under LIFO for tax purposes can not be greater than inventories valued under LIFO for financial reporting (can have more goods on LIFO for book than for tax, but not vice versa)
    • Must take NON-LIFO reserves into income over 4-year period beginning with year of election. Examples include:
      • Lower of cost or market reserve
      • Slow-moving/obsolete reserve
      • Arbitrary write-downs other than shrink
    • Must stay on LIFO for five years prior to being allowed to automatically terminate election (must pay $12K users fee & complete change prior to year end if terminating LIFO election less than five years before original year of adoption)
  • Disclaimers
    • Portions or all of LIFO reserve may be taken back into income if the following occurs:
      • Portion of LIFO reserve may be taken back into income in periods where one or both of the following occurs:
        • Deflation
        • Material inventory liquidations (for example, a 50% decrease in the current vs. prior year’s ending inventory balance at cost)
      • All of LIFO reserve will be taken back into income over 4 years when either of the following occurs:
        • C to S Corp conversions
        • Business asset sales
  • Election Benefit Analysis (for companies not on LIFO, but considering adoption)
    • Thorough LIFO Due diligence should be considered essential
    • Failing to perform thorough LIFO due diligence can lead to the following:
      • Materially lower tax benefits being obtained in the long-term as a result of selecting suboptimal methods
      • Impermissible methods unknowingly being used & audit risk being created
      • Utilizing methods that are more error-prone or burdensome than simpler, less time-intensive alternatives
      • Higher likelihood of eventually terminating LIFO election due to lack of benefits and/or excessive administrative costs/resources
    • Outsourcing due diligence work to a LIFO subject matter expert ensures the following:
      • Historical inflation studied to predict long-term impact of LIFO to illustrate potential future benefits & risks
      • All method alternatives are considered & best practices are considered/employed
      • Best possible tax answer is achieved while ensuring compliance
      • Responsibilities & requirements incident to electing are clearly defined
  • Review (for companies already on LIFO)
    • The majority of calculations & methods we review either contain errors, have compliance issues or utilize suboptimal methods
    • Most compliance issues & suboptimal methods usage results from a lack of thorough due diligence being performed at the time of election
    • Very few CPA firms have software to quickly automate LIFO calculations, confirm calculation accuracy & easily identify errors
    • No CPA firm other than LIFOPro works exclusively with LIFO 100% of the time, meaning that they’re unable to provide thorough due diligence
    • Obtaining a review from a LIFO subject matter expert ensures the following:
      • Calculation errors that had gone undetected for many years are identified & prevented from occurring in the future
      • Compliance issues & suboptimal methods usage are identified and best practices feedback & recommendations are provided
      • Strategies for reducing or eliminating IRS audit risk are provided
  • Companies not on LIFO: LIFO Election Benefit Analysis
    • Comprehensive LIFO election case study packaged in the form of a PDF report containing the following:
      • Election year estimated tax LIFO benefits, including comparisons between internal vs. external inflation measurement source
      • 20 year pro forma IPIC LIFO calculation using Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer/Producer Price Indexes to determine inflation frequency, long-term historical average annual inflation rate & whether a company is a good LIFO candidate
      • Election recommendations including which submethods should be used
      • How LIFO Works appendix covering all the essentials
      • LIFOPro also provides turnkey outsourcing solution fee quote showing election year & recurring costs
      • Sample LIFO Election Benefit Analysis Report
  • Companies on LIFO: Calculation, Methods & Best Practices Review
    • Comprehensive calculation review & guide packaged in the form of a PDF report containing the following:
      • Calculation review
      • Methods review
      • Best practices feedback, including:
        • Optimization strategies & tax deferral maximization opportunities
        • Errors & IRS audit risk areas identified
        • Strategies for reducing IRS audit risk and/or obtaining audit protection
        • Recommendations & implementation steps provided for applying recommended changes
        • Same LIFOPro report package provided to outsourcing clients & fee quote also provided in addition to review report
        • Companies can also receive complimentary LIFOPro software trial
        • Sample LIFO Calculation, Methods & Best Practices Review Report
  • In-house calculations made WITHOUT software
    • Inflation calculation can be very complex when performed in spreadsheets
    • Important steps may be overlooked or left out altogether when manually performed in-house, such as:
    • Including new items in calculation ensure compliance or reconstructing new item cost to avoid inflation dilution that’d otherwise occur
    • Performing inflation calculation reasonableness testing, setting criteria for identifying inflation outliers & establishing standard procedures for handling outliers
    • Uniform BLS category assignment to new items to ensure the same BLS indexes are applied to similar new vs. preexisting items
    • Calculating layers & decrements can be complex because it’s unknown whether there’ll be an increment or decrement in any given year & different math steps are required to calculate an increment vs. decrement(s)
    • Calculation errors become more inevitable the longer you’ve been on LIFO as decades worth of LIFO layers accumulate
  • Outsourced calculations or those made in-house WITH software
    • Make being on LIFO as simple as possible with outsourcing & minimize time spent on LIFO in-house with software
    • Reduces control & detection risk since all aspects of the calculation is automated using LIFOPro software
    • Simplifies audit procedures by providing comprehensive, user-friendly documentation
    • CPA firms & companies can rely on LIFOPro to serve as their LIFO subject matter expert rather than having to develop & maintain in-house expertise
    • Guarantee calculation accuracy & eliminate IRS audit risk
    • Easily obtain interim estimates to focus on forecasting & planning
    • Avoid getting bogged down with compliance work & getting hit with big LIFO surprises at year end
  • All of LIFOPro’s offerings come with the assurance of a SOC 1 Type II Report
  • Features
    • All tasks related to LIFO calculation & documentation outsourced to & managed by LIFOPro, including:
      • BLS category assignments (if applicable)
      • Inflation calculation, including new item cost reconstruction, exceptions & outlier analysis
      • LIFO reserve calculation
      • LIFO calculation documentation & storage
      • LIFOPro report package preparation
      • All clients receive LIFOPro report package electronically containing comprehensive calculation documentation, including summary amounts required to record LIFO-related accounting entries & tax return line items
      • Clients using external indexes (IPIC method) receive up to three interim estimates at no additional cost (using prior year product mix & year to date BLS inflation rates)
      • Flexible engagement structures to include supplemental services
      • Includes up to 40 hours of audit support
  • Benefits
    • Make being on LIFO as simple as possible
    • Simplifies audit procedures for companies & auditors by providing them with comprehensive, standardized documentation
    • Increase transparency & understandability by converting many years worth of files & documentation into a single user-friendly LIFO report package containing comprehensive documentation
    • Eliminate error-prone Excel spreadsheets, guarantee calculation accuracy & eliminate audit risk
    • Free up time to focus on LIFO forecasting & planning by eliminating time spent preparing/documenting calculation

Turnkey Outsourcing Solutions Process Flow: First Year

Turnkey Outsourcing Solutions Process Flow: Recurring Annual Calculation Services

  • Get a complimentary LIFO Election Benefit Analysis to obtain the estimated tax benefits from electing LIFO this year
  • Comprehensive case study covering all rewards/risks of LIFO that’s customized for your company & includes the following:
    • Current year estimated tax savings from LIFO, including pro forma internal vs. external index comparisons
    • 20 year pro forma calculation showing inflation frequency, historical average annual inflation rates & LIFO reserve
    • Election & Submethods recommendations
  • See sample LIFO Election Benefit Analysis report here: Sample LIFO Election Benefit Analysis Report
  • How to get started
  • Required LIFO election benefit analysis documentation:
  • Alternatively, you may email your benefit analysis request/documentation to
  • LIFOPro will email you analysis report & outsourcing fee quote within one week of receiving above documentation & will offer to schedule a call to discuss analysis results, outsourcing fee quote, implementation steps & engagement options
  • LIFOPro can expedite analysis as needed to accommodate incorporating estimated LIFO figure into year end financial statement
  • LIFOPro has turnkey solutions to make being on LIFO as simple as possible. Learn more: LIFOPro’s Offerings